Ethiopian News, Current Affairs and Opinion Forum
James Dahl
Member
Posts: 20
Joined: 03 Sep 2014, 17:05

The intriguing Gadla Abuna Aragawi: a window and clue into lost Aksumite history

Post by James Dahl » 12 Mar 2019, 15:08

Originally posted on my blog at https://historyinthehorn.wordpress.com/ ... e-history/

The accurate history of the Empire of Aksum has been lost. This is undeniable for two reasons. The first reason is simply that much of the documentation has been destroyed in the last 1200 years of calamitous wars that have befallen Ethiopia. The second and more significant reason is deliberate rewriting of Ethiopian history to glorify to the dynasty of Yekuno Amlak, which went on to found the medieval state of Abyssinia in 1270 which is, like the Capetian monarchy is the basis of modern France, the basis of modern Ethiopia.

This rewriting ranges from the subtle to the extreme. For instance Yekuno Amlak was a descendant of the son of Del Naod, who reigned before the invasion of Gudit and the destruction of Aksum in the 9th century. The sack of Aksum by Gudit was a critical turning point in Ethiopian history, the significance of which has been diminished as other more recent turning points have come and gone, but about 1100 years ago or thereabouts a woman named Yodit or Gudit, who was a queen of the Beta Israel, sacked Aksum and ruled as Empress of the Aksumite Empire for about 40 years. Now if you study the history, this happened more than a century after the reign of Del Naod, who began his reign in the year 861. We know this because Debre Istafanos Monastary was founded in the 7th year of Del Naod in 868. The Coptic Pope of Alexandria Pope Philotheos sent a new Metropolitan of Aksum to Ethiopia in 985 and Gudit was defeated very shortly thereafter.

The Aksumite dynasty would limp along for another 200 years until the dynasty ended and the Zagwe dynasty would assume the throne through marriage to Terdae Gabaz and take the throne in 1137. The Zagwe rule would last for a little over a century until Yekuno Amlak, a powerful regional lord from the south, would overthrow the Zagwe in a coup d’etat and two year war and seize the throne for himself in 1270.

The rewriting began somewhat immediately, where Del Naod was made the last king of Aksum, after which time there was a 333 year rule of the Zagwe (who were in league with Gudit in this revised history, as the Beta Israel and the Zagwe were of related ethnic groups). Also in this revised history, the dynasty was not just the kings of Aksum but also the sons of the Queen of Sheba and King Solomon, thus renaming the dynasty the Solomonic Dynasty. This claim is not present in any Aksumite inscriptions or monuments and appears shortly after 1270.

In order to have a dynasty that stretched back to King Solomon’s time and also to erase the senior branch of the Aksumite dynasty from history, the king lists were terminally altered into unintelligibility to the point where they bear no resemblance to the historical coinage, inscriptions or church histories. For political convenience, history was destroyed.

However in the church records, which are a parallel and independent authority, we find grains of historicity. And this is where we come to the Gadla Abuna Aragawi or the Acts of Father Aragawi, one of the church leaders during the active period of the 6th century, in the heart of the era we are discussing, the late Aksumite era. The book is mainly about Abuna Aragawi, as you would imagine, but delves into a very revealing passage of history where it makes an extremely important statement:

“In the 8th year of Emperor Bazen, was the advent of Christ. Between Emperor Bazen and Abreha and Azbeha there were 19 kings and 244 years. Between Abreha and Azbeha and Gabra Masqal there were 9 kings and 124 years, for a total of 368 years.”

Due to the way the king lists have been formatted to stretch into antiquity, the first line has been traditionally interpreted to mean that in the 8th year of Bazen, Christ was born, meaning the beginning of his reign was 8 BCE. However, the early parts of the king lists, around king Bazen, is one of the few areas where recognizable historical kings like Gedur (who reigned in the 3rd century), Afilya (or Aphilas, who reigned after Gedur) and Awsena (Ousanas, who reigned after Afilya and before Ezana) can be found. This offers an alternative interpretation of this passage, that the archaeological records are correct and Aksum is a kingdom founded in the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE, and Bazen is in fact Ezana.

If one takes this interpretation of the passage and the era of Ezana, the 244 year span between the beginning of Ezana and the end of Abreha and Azbeha becomes very interesting. Azbeha in this scenario is of course Kaleb, the emperor who invaded Yemen to defeat Dhu Nuways, and Abreha is his church-building brother who marched on Mecca and died in the Year of the Elephant, 569. Aksum converted to Coptic Christianity in 333 CE, so if this is the 8th year of Ezana, meaning his reign began in 325, this is exactly 244 years prior to the Year of the Elephant and the death of Azbeha’s (Kaleb’s) brother Abreha, nicknamed “Scarface” or al-Ashrar by the Arabs.

Moving forward in time to the reign of Gabra Masqal, this puts the end of his reign in 693, around the time when the Aksum Empire fell apart into civil war approximately around the year 700 when his descendants and the descendants of his brother Israel (founder of the Beta Israel or House of Israel) began fighting, which circles back to Queen Gudit invading and destroying Aksum 250 years later.

Having made this connection I frantically looked through all the king lists to find one with 19 names inclusive between Bazen and Abreha/Azbeha and no such list exists, and in any case the lists that do exist the names in this era do not match historical records like the pre-Bazen ones do (which were I assume so ancient as to be safe to include in king lists without people noticing chronological discrepancies and so embedded in legend that their absence would be noticed).

yaballo
Member
Posts: 2446
Joined: 16 Feb 2013, 02:30

Re: The intriguing Gadla Abuna Aragawi: a window and clue into lost Aksumite history

Post by yaballo » 12 Mar 2019, 16:52

James,

The author deliberately "forgot" to mention a crucial fact in the story of Abune Aregawi in that typically habesha story-tellers habit. Abune Aregawi was NOT a habesha but a ferenji missionary sent by the churches of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) to what is today Eritrea & Tigray to spread christianity.

Abune Aregawi was one of the nine all-ferenji missionaries responsible in mass conversion of the natives of what is today Eritrea & Tigray, most of whom were followers of indigenous African religions & an archaic form of judaism (felesha-ism). These ferenji missionaries were known as "The Nine Saints of Ethiopia" & it was these ferenji monks who built ALL of the major & hard-to-reach cave monasteries such as Debre-Damo in Tigray that, today, is one of the top tourist attractions in the region.

Here is a link to learn more about the Abba Aregawi & the "Nine Saints of Ethiopia". The story in the establishment of the Ethiopian orthodox christianity & church is not different from the story of the spread of christiaity in the rest of black Africa: both were the result of the proselytizing efforts of ferenji missionaries. Only that the missionary work in Ethiopia, Nubia (Sudan), etc, was older than the missionary work carried-out by ferenjis in other parts of black Africa. :idea:

photo: the Nine (all ferenji) Saints of Ethiopia.



photo: Debre-Damo cave monastery in Tigray.



Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nine_Saints

Abdelaziz
Member+
Posts: 5192
Joined: 29 May 2013, 22:00

Re: The intriguing Gadla Abuna Aragawi: a window and clue into lost Aksumite history

Post by Abdelaziz » 12 Mar 2019, 17:36

Yaballo, Jealous Borana-Bantu, so what? Axumites were never ni"gas like you, anyways. Axumites were Sabean, Agazian and Habeshat in origin, thus genetically highly related to the 9 saints from Byzantane Empire and Middle East. The 9 white saints were therefore the cousins of Axumites. The 9 great saints came to a nation that was already deeply Christian for almost 2 centuries before their arrival. Unlike your ape-like ancestors, Axumites were not primitive racists, they warmly accepted the white saints and taught them Geez and made them Axumites like themselves. Now go and kill yourself if you feel jealous of Axumites and their descendants. Or accept the fact you were born from a primitive tribe of the inferior Borana -Bantu species and live with it in the basement like bottom-feeder.
The 9 saints came to Axum because it was one the best, highly devote Christian nations on Earth, that was also an extremely civilized as well as an exceedingly wealthy Empire. Thus, albeit Axum was surrounded by dirty-poor (worm eating Borana-Bantus such as the Madagascari Gog-Magogs like your tree-hugging ape-like ancestors, during that time, the saints happily lived in Tigray and became proud citizens of Tigray till their death and burial there.
BTW: Some of the 9 saints were actually members of Royal families in the Roman/Byzantine Empire ( Eg: Abune Gerima), they just were attracted to the highly sophisticated civilization in the truest ancient Christian empire, that was intriguingly located nearby an ocean of primitive subhumans like your ape-like ancestors.

Abdelaziz
Member+
Posts: 5192
Joined: 29 May 2013, 22:00

Re: The intriguing Gadla Abuna Aragawi: a window and clue into lost Aksumite history

Post by Abdelaziz » 12 Mar 2019, 19:01

Yikuno-Amlak's genealogist possibly confused King Ambesawedom of Axum(who reigned till up to around the 1130s),with Emperor Dl Naod Of Axum who ruled during the late 9th century. I may be wrong but I still prefer to think YikunoAmlak was the direct descendant of king Ambesawedom of Axum. There was also another Axumite king in that pre-zague era named Wedomraad (Araadom) who is suggested by some sources to be Yikuno-Amlak's Tigrean ancestor. I also think princess Tirdae-Gebaaz is the daughter of King Ambesawedom of Axum. Ambesawedom probably ruled till 1137, the start of Zague era, making him the last full-blown king of Axum - who then passed the throne to his daughter instead of to one of his two rivaling sons. The sons of the king were already fighting for the throne and one of them angrily killed the Pop named Michael who favored one over the other brother. This forced Ambesawedom to be angrily giving away the throne to his daughter(Tirdae) and he himself became monk.
I think Ambesawedom passed the throne to his daughter who was married to his top military commander of Agew origin that was named Teklehaymanot Merara, coz he saw his sons do not deserve to get the throne as they were weaker than his son in law due their division, After Ambesawedom abdicated power to his daughter and son in law, war was again rekindled among Axumite aristocracy, who opposed the king's decision to give the throne to his daughter who in turn gave it to her Agew husband. Her royal title was princess Mesobeworq The Custodian Of Axum-Tsion. She is the mother of the king nicknamed Lalibel, and that of his younger brother, who became king after him. The so-called Zague Dynasty was thus a direct continuation/offshoot of Axumite dynasty as is the later-day Solomonoid dynasy, which replaced Zague after a little more than one century.
ps,
Some of the rockhewn churches in Lalibela were built before the so-called Zague dynasty (during Axum proper) and the rest were built during and after the Zague era. And all of them bear the characteristic features of Axumite architecture.

Here is a pure Axumite country song, in a wedding - from Axum, in Ankere region, sung by a young kirarist Mr. Rasworq Naod.



Another song from Tigray, this time from the the historic Geraalta region, home of many ancient and medieval era's rockhewn churches, located not very far from Abune-Aregawi's Debredamo .
Last edited by Abdelaziz on 12 Mar 2019, 20:39, edited 1 time in total.

James Dahl
Member
Posts: 20
Joined: 03 Sep 2014, 17:05

Re: The intriguing Gadla Abuna Aragawi: a window and clue into lost Aksumite history

Post by James Dahl » 12 Mar 2019, 19:31

I believe Yekuno Amlak is the direct descendant of Del Naod but of a cadet branch which went on to rule Bulga region from Tegulet castle.

There are 9 generations between Yekuno Amlak and Del Naod which is 250-300 years. Del Naod died around 880 and Yekuno Amlak died in 1270 so that's about right.

Yekuno Amlak is descended from the cadet Tegulet branch founded by Del Naod's son Mahbere Wedem, the main branch contined ruling after Del Naod though their identity is extremely confused though may include the mysterious Emperor Maedai, who ruled prior to Gudit's conquest of Aksum, and after that the main branch continued with Anbasa Wedem.

Abdelaziz
Member+
Posts: 5192
Joined: 29 May 2013, 22:00

Re: The intriguing Gadla Abuna Aragawi: a window and clue into lost Aksumite history

Post by Abdelaziz » 12 Mar 2019, 20:20

So you do not think YikunoAmlak is a descendant of Ambesawedom? Who was the king that was defeated by Yodith? I thought Emperor Maedai defeated and killed Yodit Gudit at Haramat, right? Am I right to say also that princess Tirdae Gabaaz, who inherited the Axumite crown and took it to the zagues, who then gave it to her husband, is queen Mesobeworq of Axum: the mother of king Lalibela and his brother? If so, why is Zague considered a separate dynasty ,rather than a direct continuation of Axum? Don't you think the dynasty of Yikuno-Amlak is the same, a continuation of Axum? If so, do you think separating 3 of them was intentionally created, in order to instill and perpetuate a sense of separateness and consequently division among Ethiopians? Note: Like Axum, Zague used Geez, the dynasty started by YikunoAmlak also used Geez until it went to Gonder, where, slowly but surely, Amharic(which was born around the 14th century) replaced Geez. So what makes these dynasties different if their official mlanguage was mainly if not solely Geez ? Do you know about the archaeological research done in Lalibela by former Cambridge professor, Dr. David Philipson, who found out that many of the rockhewn churches in Lalibela were actually built much earlier, during the zenith of Axumite era, and not during the so-called zague era( 12th-13th century) ? If this is proven true, then even more, Lalibela becomes Axum as Axum itself.
Thanks!

James Dahl
Member
Posts: 20
Joined: 03 Sep 2014, 17:05

Re: The intriguing Gadla Abuna Aragawi: a window and clue into lost Aksumite history

Post by James Dahl » 12 Mar 2019, 20:34

This is the problem though is that between Del Naod consecrating Debre Istafanos in the 7th year of his reign in 868 it is nearly a century before Gudit captures Aksum in around 945. Unless there are impossibly long reigns there is probably more than 1 king between Del Naod and Gudit, probably at least 2 and more likely 3. The mysterious "Tabtahaj" of Egyptian coptic records is one of these who died after 925, then his two sons who according to legend are Degna Djan and Geda Djan.

After Gudit dies around 985 Anbasa Wedem retakes Aksum and there is another 120 years of main branch kings ending in Terdae Gabaz then Mara Takla Haymanot and the Zagwe in 1117. At least 4 kings in this period and probably more.

This period, between Del Naod and Mara Takla Haymanot is not very well understood by historians, it's incredibly confused and confusing. The reason it's so confusing is the erasure of the main branch vs the cadet branch. By trying to push up Del Naod to immediately preceding the Zagwe you have to cut out 300 years of history, but you can't because everyone knows the story of Anbasa Wedem and Gudit, so the historical copy editors trying to make the chronology work end up putting Gudit and Anbasa Wedem BEFORE Del Naod. This is impossible though because then there are too many generations in Yekuno Amlak's genealogy.

James Dahl
Member
Posts: 20
Joined: 03 Sep 2014, 17:05

Re: The intriguing Gadla Abuna Aragawi: a window and clue into lost Aksumite history

Post by James Dahl » 12 Mar 2019, 20:50

As to your point regarding the historical continuity between the Christian kingdom from 700 to 945 then from 985 until 1117 to the Zagwe and then following Yekuno Amlak's coup d'etat the Amhara kingdom from 1270. The dynastic changes were not state changes, it was the same state. The biggest cleavage however was one of geography and of religion, as prior to 700 Aksum was a mostly coastal empire very oriented towards the Red Sea, the Dahlak Islands and the port of Adulis, with a mixed population of Christians, Jews and traditional African religions. After 700 and the breakup of Aksum into warring Christian and Jewish kingdoms, the post-700 state is a successor to Aksum but it was not Aksum, especially after the Muslim conquest of coastal Eritrea in 714.

Both the Christian kingdom of Del Naod centered at Lake Hayq and the Jewish kingdom of Beta Israel centered at Gonder were successors to Aksum, but all the territories of Aksum would not be united again until Amde Seyon conquered everything in the 14th century.

Abdelaziz
Member+
Posts: 5192
Joined: 29 May 2013, 22:00

Re: The intriguing Gadla Abuna Aragawi: a window and clue into lost Aksumite history

Post by Abdelaziz » 12 Mar 2019, 21:06

You have already answered many of my questions before I even raise them, but I will appreciate if you answer the following extra questions: who is the king that was defeated by Yodith ? who is the king who defeted Yodith? Was she defeated and killed in Haramat, near Hawzen? Was her grave identified? When she ruled for 40 years, what was her capital city? Or was she mobile, likre Yikuno-Amlak and many of his successors such as Amdetsion ? Do you think Yodith was a Jewish from the Highlands of Adwa, namely a place called Mai-kinetal, as many Tigreans specially those from Axum believe? Or was she from Temben-&-Semien? Thanks!

Abdelaziz
Member+
Posts: 5192
Joined: 29 May 2013, 22:00

Re: The intriguing Gadla Abuna Aragawi: a window and clue into lost Aksumite history

Post by Abdelaziz » 12 Mar 2019, 21:47

he biggest cleavage however was one of geography
Are we reading the past history on the basis of the current/modern provincial/tribal boundaries ? What if the Axumites back then considered Shewa, Gonder, Gojam, Lalibela, etc as their own home, just like Axum(Tigray) itself used to be ? So I think, if we agree the state was the same no matter where the rulers moved its headquarter, what if these same rulers also considered the geography to be one and the same for them regardless where they chose to live? They probably were all Geez speakers anyways? They probably felt Everything was theirs. There probably were very few tribes if any living with and around them. And add to that the fact their population was very, very small, and possibly they knew each other no matter how far apart and spreadout they lived. Think about this, the entire Ethiopian population a 100 years ago was said to be less than 10 million, today it is over one hundred million. So you can imagine how small the population in Ethiopia- specifically the north alone- could have been over one thousand years ago. May be the entire population of the Axumite empire and its later-date successors was 1 -2 million/2-3 million max.
Most of the so-called Ethiopian history, whch is mostly fictional propaganda, largely written during the last king's era, is apparently carefully fabricated to consolidate the territorial division of the country into the-then newly-minted 14 provinces that were created after moving big chunks of land from one tribe to the other. For example, the places we now call Wello, Gonder and Gojam, etc are not currently inhabited by the people who lived in them 1000 years ago. No doubt,a 1000 years ago they were very sparsely populated with Geez speaking Axumites, some African tribes, along with a few Hamitic/Agew villages here and there. So what I think is, the current provincial divisions, that were unfairly drawn to benefit the newly-minted tribe called Amhara, have radically damaged the way we understand or interpret Ethiopian history. For example, If Lalibela was put in Tigray by the king's cartographers, today our interpretation of Zague versus Axum could have been radically different and much closer to the true history thereof. And btw, Lalibela used to be part of Tigray from the outset of Axumite history and, on and off thereafter, it was part of Tigray- even during modern times.
THanks!

James Dahl
Member
Posts: 20
Joined: 03 Sep 2014, 17:05

Re: The intriguing Gadla Abuna Aragawi: a window and clue into lost Aksumite history

Post by James Dahl » 13 Mar 2019, 11:32

Abdelaziz wrote:
12 Mar 2019, 21:06
You have already answered many of my questions before I even raise them, but I will appreciate if you answer the following extra questions: who is the king that was defeated by Yodith ? who is the king who defeted Yodith? Was she defeated and killed in Haramat, near Hawzen? Was her grave identified? When she ruled for 40 years, what was her capital city? Or was she mobile, likre Yikuno-Amlak and many of his successors such as Amdetsion ? Do you think Yodith was a Jewish from the Highlands of Adwa, namely a place called Mai-kinetal, as many Tigreans specially those from Axum believe? Or was she from Temben-&-Semien? Thanks!
The evidence points to her being of the royal family of Beta Israel and their capital city was Gonder. According to the histories I've read she herself was never defeated and died of old age, and rather her successors were defeated by Anbasa Wedem. I have never heard theories placing her origin in Eritrea.
Abdelaziz wrote:
12 Mar 2019, 21:47
Are we reading the past history on the basis of the current/modern provincial/tribal boundaries ? What if the Axumites back then considered Shewa, Gonder, Gojam, Lalibela, etc as their own home, just like Axum(Tigray) itself used to be ? So I think, if we agree the state was the same no matter where the rulers moved its headquarter, what if these same rulers also considered the geography to be one and the same for them regardless where they chose to live? They probably were all Geez speakers anyways? They probably felt Everything was theirs. There probably were very few tribes if any living with and around them. And add to that the fact their population was very, very small, and possibly they knew each other no matter how far apart and spreadout they lived. Think about this, the entire Ethiopian population a 100 years ago was said to be less than 10 million, today it is over one hundred million. So you can imagine how small the population in Ethiopia- specifically the north alone- could have been over one thousand years ago. May be the entire population of the Axumite empire and its later-date successors was 1 -2 million/2-3 million max.
Most of the so-called Ethiopian history, whch is mostly fictional propaganda, largely written during the last king's era, is apparently carefully fabricated to consolidate the territorial division of the country into the-then newly-minted 14 provinces that were created after moving big chunks of land from one tribe to the other. For example, the places we now call Wello, Gonder and Gojam, etc are not currently inhabited by the people who lived in them 1000 years ago. No doubt,a 1000 years ago they were very sparsely populated with Geez speaking Axumites, some African tribes, along with a few Hamitic/Agew villages here and there. So what I think is, the current provincial divisions, that were unfairly drawn to benefit the newly-minted tribe called Amhara, have radically damaged the way we understand or interpret Ethiopian history. For example, If Lalibela was put in Tigray by the king's cartographers, today our interpretation of Zague versus Axum could have been radically different and much closer to the true history thereof. And btw, Lalibela used to be part of Tigray from the outset of Axumite history and, on and off thereafter, it was part of Tigray- even during modern times.
THanks!
There used to be many more provinces than now, hundreds of them. The provinces of the Aksumite Empire and their successors were about the size of modern Woredas. The modern (albeit now defunct) provinces of Ethiopia came about during the Era of Princes and correspond to the domains of the quasi-kings that arose in the 18th century. They are not historical provinces of Aksum, ancient Tigray for instance was a small area around Aksum and much of later Tigray province and the current region was outside of it, it ended at the borders of Tembien, Haramat and Agame which were seperate provinces historically. All along what is now Tigray were numerous provinces with their own historical and ethnic identity like Enderta, Wajirat, Doba and Bugna.
The Agaw, particuarly Xamta Agaw who formed the Zagwe dynasty, were in provinces to the west of these provinces, in Lasta, Waag and Aina. The idea of a province being part of Tigray vs Amhara is a very modern phenomenon. In Amde Seyon's time the most powerful northern province was not Tigray but rather Enderta.

Abdelaziz
Member+
Posts: 5192
Joined: 29 May 2013, 22:00

Re: The intriguing Gadla Abuna Aragawi: a window and clue into lost Aksumite history

Post by Abdelaziz » 14 Mar 2019, 07:32

Thanks for the explanation. History always has a lot of holes but Ethiopia's has more holes than substance. Fortunately the facts are on the ground. We need more archaelogical study since only 5 % is what had been studied.
I did heard a grave of Yodit was found in Haramat a few years ago but I' m not sure if she was killed there.
I did not mention Eritrea as her origin, I said Mai-Kinetal in Adwa, or Temben-Semien, whch was one medieval era province in greater Tigray, similar to what Enderta, Agame, etc used to be.
Do not confuse Tigray-minor(Axum-Adwa-Shire with Greater Tigray/Tigray proper (Tigray_Tigrigni) which included: the present day Tigray, most of Afar, almost all chunks of present day Eritrea, large chunks Wello ( such as Doba, Dahna, Xamat, Lasta, Seqota, Zobul, Alewaha ) and parts of Todays Gonder(such as all of Simien... located as far close as the gates of the town of Gonder).
And do not forget Gonder was Empty /forest before Fasil evicted the few qimants who lived there and built his headquarters there, so I do not think Yodit came from there. The legend about her in Axum is that she was from Mai-kinetal in Adwan Highlands. Actually Axumans still resent Adwans believing the legend that Yodit ruined Axum. They say she was supported by rebels from Temben, thus Axumans are resentful towards Temben as much as towards Adwa.
You are right Tigray minor/Axum-adwa-shire ended in Haramat and the River Weree/ border of Temben, but Tigray proper included everything that was in Tigray, which was many times bigger than present day Tigray. Tigreans lost power and immediately Amhara came to power in a critical time, 130 years ago, and the latter was able to systematically steal many regions that belonged to Tigray. It is very unfair for this upstart and newly-minted tribe to steal so much land from almost all ancient peoples in Ethiopia specially Tigreans. Amhara also stole Tigrean history and they continue to steal contemporary Tigrean history even today. T Mind you, even the the so-called Shewan history is more Tigrean than Shewan, obviously the so-called Shewan kings had Tigrean names. Their parents also had Tigrigna names.... this is evident specially with the Tigrigna names of their mothers and wives (ezgi-kibra, Ezgi-Haria, Birhan-mogosa, welete-kidan, Welete-gergis, Silus-Hayla, etc, Tsegazeab, Tesfatsion, Tesfana, Negassi, etc. Amhara stole Geez and its alphabets from Tigray and completely destroyed Geez by mixing their bantu/cush terms. Sadly to this day Amhara do not know how to correctly read and write in Geez alphabets. Amhara imperialism is the worst imperialism in human history.
Sorry I sound angry and resentful.
Thanks!

Marc
Member
Posts: 189
Joined: 27 Jun 2017, 01:52

Re: The intriguing Gadla Abuna Aragawi: a window and clue into lost Aksumite history

Post by Marc » 14 Mar 2019, 09:01

Abdelaziz wrote:
14 Mar 2019, 07:32
Thanks for the explanation. History always has a lot of holes but Ethiopia's has more holes than substance. Fortunately the facts are on the ground. We need more archaelogical study since only 5 % is what had been studied.
I did heard a grave of Yodit was found in Haramat a few years ago but I' m not sure if she was killed there.
I did not mention Eritrea as her origin, I said Mai-Kinetal in Adwa, or Temben-Semien, whch was one medieval era province in greater Tigray, similar to what Enderta, Agame, etc used to be.
Do not confuse Tigray-minor(Axum-Adwa-Shire with Greater Tigray/Tigray proper (Tigray_Tigrigni) which included: the present day Tigray, most of Afar, almost all chunks of present day Eritrea, large chunks Wello ( such as Doba, Dahna, Xamat, Lasta, Seqota, Zobul, Alewaha ) and parts of Todays Gonder(such as all of Simien... located as far close as the gates of the town of Gonder).
And do not forget Gonder was Empty /forest before Fasil evicted the few qimants who lived there and built his headquarters there, so I do not think Yodit came from there. The legend about her in Axum is that she was from Mai-kinetal in Adwan Highlands. Actually Axumans still resent Adwans believing the legend that Yodit ruined Axum. They say she was supported by rebels from Temben, thus Axumans are resentful towards Temben as much as towards Adwa.
You are right Tigray minor/Axum-adwa-shire ended in Haramat and the River Weree/ border of Temben, but Tigray proper included everything that was in Tigray, which was many times bigger than present day Tigray. Tigreans lost power and immediately Amhara came to power in a critical time, 130 years ago, and the latter was able to systematically steal many regions that belonged to Tigray. It is very unfair for this upstart and newly-minted tribe to steal so much land from almost all ancient peoples in Ethiopia specially Tigreans. Amhara also stole Tigrean history and they continue to steal contemporary Tigrean history even today. T Mind you, even the the so-called Shewan history is more Tigrean than Shewan, obviously the so-called Shewan kings had Tigrean names. Their parents also had Tigrigna names.... this is evident specially with the Tigrigna names of their mothers and wives (ezgi-kibra, Ezgi-Haria, Birhan-mogosa, welete-kidan, Welete-gergis, Silus-Hayla, etc, Tsegazeab, Tesfatsion, Tesfana, Negassi, etc. Amhara stole Geez and its alphabets from Tigray and completely destroyed Geez by mixing their bantu/cush terms. Sadly to this day Amhara do not know how to correctly read and write in Geez alphabets. Amhara imperialism is the worst imperialism in human history.
Sorry I sound angry and resentful.
Thanks!
No ! That was your delusional thinking. No single Axum king had Tigre Name. All the Kings of Axum, including Ezana and Kaleb is more related to Azana and Keleb of Amhara. Therefore, Tigres were labourers brought from some other areas to serve Amhara royals at Axum, that later moved to the South for security reason. Tigres were not part of Axum, and therefore remained there in Tigrai. Muslims and other expansionists, including Yodit had nothing with them. Tigres were always outcast and regarded as mere servants.

Abdelaziz
Member+
Posts: 5192
Joined: 29 May 2013, 22:00

Re: The intriguing Gadla Abuna Aragawi: a window and clue into lost Aksumite history

Post by Abdelaziz » 14 Mar 2019, 09:27

Marc_antello, ante bedatam dedeb terewaee wedi Bidama, cursed ar'teran llotiew: Caleb is hebraic in origin, just like Solomon, David, et. And,all these names have very identical, or at least similar, meanings in both hebrew and Geez, since both semitic languages were/and still are extremely closely related - specially back then before languages across the world got mixed with other languages due to massive population movements all over the globe in the last several centuries .
Ezana is an old Geez/Tigrigna name, Ezana means , one who Encourages us.
To tell you honestly and succinctly, Amaray is a fictional tribe that does not exist in reality,the Amharay tribe is as fake as the cursed arteran tribe created by Italians. No wonder these days we see cursed ar'terans and Amharu huddling eachother & weeping together :lol:.
Now go kill yourself, you are worthless, cheap ar'teran-Amharan hybrid :twisted: :mrgreen: !


Hello Dahl,
Here is another kindling point worth mentioning :every ancient Empire - be it Axum, Rome, Persia, China, etc- had small province or kingdom at its core. For Example:like Axum had Tigray-minor(Adwa-Axum-Shire) as its core, Rome-minor had Vespasian as its core. Axum is thought to have had two or more capitals after it grew to an Empire, just like Roman Empire added another capital, the western capital located in Milan. Around the end of the 3rd century Roman empire slowly declined and even creased to function shortly after that. But it was later on replaced by Byzantine empire. Byzantine was a newer form of Roman Empire with its capital l( Besides Rome) being Constantinople, Today's Istanbul, in Turkey). Similarly when Axum declined around the 1130's, lets agree, it became Zague and lets lets also assume its capital became Lalibela, meaning: besides Axum and its other successors, such as: Hawzen, Wukro(Degum) Quiha, Hayq, etc--though, evidently, Lalibela does not have any signs of an early-medieval era's l let alone an ancient era's town/towns within it or around it, except the Rockehewn churches strewn here and there ( The current town of Lalibela is brand-new). But anyways, Zague was in essence another form of Axum (albeit smaller and weaker than Axum proper), much like Byzantine is continuation/heir of Rome.

Marc
Member
Posts: 189
Joined: 27 Jun 2017, 01:52

Re: The intriguing Gadla Abuna Aragawi: a window and clue into lost Aksumite history

Post by Marc » 14 Mar 2019, 09:49

Abdelaziz wrote:
14 Mar 2019, 09:27
Marc_antello, ante bedatam dedeb terewaee wedi Bidama, cursed ar'teran llotiew: Caleb is hebraic in origin, just like Solomon, David, et. And,all these names have very identical, or at least similar, meanings in both hebrew and Geez, since both semitic languages were/and still are extremely closely related - specially back then before languages across the world got mixed with other languages due to massive population movements all over the globe in the last several centuries .
Ezana is an old Geez/Tigrigna name, Ezana means , one who Encourages us.
To tell you honestly and succinctly, Amaray is a fictional tribe that does not exist in reality,the Amharay tribe is as fake as the cursed arteran tribe created by Italians. No wonder these days we see cursed ar'terans and Amharu huddling eachother & weeping together :lol:.
Now go kill yourself, you are worthless, cheap ar'teran-Amharan hybrid :twisted: :mrgreen: !


Hello Dahl,
Here is another kindling point worth mentioning :every ancient Empire - be it Axum, Rome, Persia, China, etc- had small province or kingdom at its core. For Example:like Axum had Tigray-minor(Adwa-Axum-Shire) as its core, Rome-minor had Vespasian as its core. Axum is thought to have had two or more capitals after it grew to an Empire, just like Roman Empire added another capital, the western capital located in Milan. Around the end of the 3rd century Roman empire slowly declined and even creased to function shortly after that. But it was later on replaced by Byzantine empire. Byzantine was a newer form of Roman Empire with its capital l( Besides Rome) being Constantinople, Today's Istanbul, in Turkey). Similarly when Axum declined around the 1130's, lets agree, it became Zague and lets lets also assume its capital became Lalibela, meaning: besides Axum and its other successors, such as: Hawzen, Wukro(Degum) Quiha, Hayq, etc--though, evidently, Lalibela does not have any signs of an early-medieval era's l let alone an ancient era's town/towns within it or around it, except the Rockehewn churches strewn here and there ( The current town of Lalibela is brand-new). But anyways, Zague was in essence another form of Axum (albeit smaller and weaker than Axum proper), much like Byzantine is continuation/heir of Rome.
Himyarite, a tribe mentioned in Axum inscription is the name of Yemenite kingdom, and its people in ancient arabic were called 'Hamara', later called Amhara. Caleb was Himyarite as per professor Getachew. Read Wikipidia about the ancient history of Amhaha.

Abdelaziz
Member+
Posts: 5192
Joined: 29 May 2013, 22:00

Re: The intriguing Gadla Abuna Aragawi: a window and clue into lost Aksumite history

Post by Abdelaziz » 14 Mar 2019, 10:56

Cursed Ar'teran-komata-am'hran diqala, you are feeling inferiority complex, ha? kkkkk I understand! Himyar, Sahlen, Raydan, Saba, etc, were colonies of Axum on several epochs, sometimes lasting for centuries,sometimes short-lived. Do you know Arabs originally got grammar and vast array of terminology from Tigray/Axum? Do you know the pre-Axumite Tigreans of Daamat/DMT/DAMOT/DAMO(asin Debre-Damo), originally centered in Atsbi and later in Yaha, also ruled Saba and Himyar. This was in BC, not in AD.-i.e, more than 7-8 centuries before Caleb ruled them. And contrary to what your gudelAmharay historian- or rather history-molester, the mentally and physically crippled Getache Haile whispered into your waxy ears,the people in southern Arabia never ruled us but we ruled them. We also defeated their colonizers( such Persians and Turks) whenever they tried to colonize us. We fought the Turks who tried to invade us by suddenly coming from their colonies( Yemen, Egypt, Palestine and Sudan) for nearly 400 years but never succumbed to their brutal tactics and finally we defeated them. We did this awesome feat though the newly-minted tribe known as Amharay and its corrupt regime (sitting in Gonder (surrounded by Azmaris and prostitutes and outlaws) was fighting against us from behind,
of course opportunistically only, whenever we were embattled due to the multi-pronged Turkish attacks and/or at the times if and when we faced
a natural calamity such as locust invasion/drought/epidemic disease.
BTW: There are clear inscriptions depicting these places in the Arabian Felix as parts of Axumite Empire. We also ruled the entire northern Somali coast (punt), not just the Red Sea coast 8) 8) . We ruled Kasu/kasa, which is today's Kasala region of Sudan ( including most of North Sudan,,,, sometimes going [deleted] far deep as Southern Egypt). We ruled Bega/Beja (which wass predominantly in Sudan at that time)We ruled Merowe , central Sudan.We ruled Nubia, north central Sudan. And so on. Live with it, you shiyat!, and shut the fo'ck up :roll: :roll: .

Post Reply