The signing of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement (COHA) in Pretoria on 2 November 2022 brought about a notable diminution of the large-scale violence in Tigray. But the Federal Government has failed to carry out COHA commitments on human rights, transitional justice and territorial integrity. The conflict in Tigray, still not resolved in any comprehensive peace, continues to produce misery. Equally alarming, hostilities in Ethiopia are now at a national scale, with significant violations increasing particularly in Amhara region, but also ongoing in Oromia and elsewhere. The risk to the State as well as regional stability and the enjoyment of human rights in East Africa cannot be overstated.
The violations of human rights in Tigray are grave and ongoing. After the COHA, the Commission’s investigations documented the continued presence in Tigray of Eritrean Defense Forces (EDF) responsible for continuing atrocities, at times committed not far from the Ethiopian National Defense Forces (ENDF). EDF attacks on civilians in Tigray, past and current – in particular sexual and gender-based violence – have been abetted or tolerated by the Federal Government, which has failed in its legal duty to protect its population from violations by a foreign army, or by Amhara militia present in the areas of Western and Southern Tigray. [/b]In and beyond Tigray, the Commission recorded scores of brutal incidents of rape and sexual violence and displacement.
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