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Hawzen
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Re: School book of children stories written by Eritreans in 1936! Can Tegaru show us if you had any written script?

Post by Hawzen » 20 Mar 2020, 23:31

eritrea wrote:
20 Mar 2020, 19:39
Hawzen wrote:
19 Mar 2020, 22:01
How about opening a new thread to express your opinion about Eritrea and its leadership
Sorry for late response dear Hawzen:

But you seems to have missed my point; why are you demanding people to open a new thread when they are already expressing themselves on the current one. Isn't that the mean purpose of communication. I am sure you want the subject to be limited to a childish discussion of my dad owns bigger car than your dad kinds of things but for your surprise it ended up being about self soul searching which is a good thing as far as I am concerned.
Hawzen wrote:
19 Mar 2020, 22:01



As much as you are calling the supporters of the Eritrean government as "wicked people", we have also extremely wicked people who pump their chest when the people of Eritrea were sanctioned again and again. Now only that, we have also seen extremely wicked people who get mad when Zerisenay Tadesse or Eritrean National Cycling team wins...In short they don't want to hear anything positive incidents or situation about Eritrea since that bring joy to the people of Eritrea. I definitely call those people LOSERS!!! Now I want to know what you would call these people?
Wicked people have always existed and will continue to exist as long as there is a a human being on this planet but that should not be a reason to lock people and put them in quarantine for decades and still continuing without any hope for any change. Something that is putting the meaning of liberty, integrity and independence into question by many.

Those whom I am calling wicked are those with indifferent attitude to people's situation and still call what is wrong is right and what is right is wrong.
Hawzen wrote:
19 Mar 2020, 22:01
I would not hijack the thread by posting something that is not related to the thread. As you can see now, we are talking about something this is our of the subject of this thread.
I really asks you to read the content of the poem that was written back in 1936 by ይስሃቅ ተወልደ መድህን and compare it with our current situation and our dreams and aspiration of today and where we are heading to and why.

ዓደየ ዓደየ ------ እፈትወኪ ብልበየ ------ ዓደየ።
ክርእየኪ ብዓይነየ ከልዕለኪ ኣብ ርእሰየ ------ ዓደየ።

ኣከለጉዛይ ምስ ሰራየ ሓማሰን ሰምሃረየ ዓደየ።
ደንከለይ ሰንሕተይ መታሕት ባርካየ ዓደየ

ዓደየ መዝኺ ------ ቊሊሕ በሊ ንምድርኺ ------ ዓደየ።
ኣምህሪ ደቅኺ ------ ተባረሩ ህዝብኺ ------ ዓደየ።

ወለዲ ሓደራኹም ------ ኣምህሩ ደቅኹም ዓደየ።
ክፈትዉ ንኣኹም ------ ክትረኽቡ ጻማኹም ዓደየ።

ደቀየ ዕምባባየ ------ ተማሃሩ ኣሕዋተየ ዓደየ።
ክትመርሕዎም ንዳሕሮትየ ------ ከተጽንዑ ናጽነትየ ዓደየ።

ብምህሮ ዝሰልጠነ ------ ፍቕሪ ዓዱ ዝወጠነ ዓደየ።
በተኽርስትያን ዝዓጠነ ------ ይኸውን በዓል ቅነ ዓደየ።
Brother/Sister Eritrea,

Thank you for the poem and it is resourceful. I also appreciate for your mature response since I believe that is the only way people with common sense come together to solve our existing problems. For me, as long as Eritrean brothers and sisters have not kissed TPLF hands and feet in the last 20 years or so, I support their right to oppose Eritrean government. I assure you that brother Deqi is definitely has never kissed TPLF hands and feet and I have the confidence in why he does what he does. After all, you are asking very legitimate questions. In fact, I am personally with brothers and sisters who fight for justice and better life for our people. I believe Eritrea and the people of Eritrea should be our priority. We know that government come and then gone...But Country and people will stay for ever. I am sure you have never read from me defending Eritrean government who spoke out against PIA. I am always for that.

However, I don't believe sell-outs who sold their soul to kiss TPLF's hands and feet for left over have the right to open their mouth as if they care about Eritrea and the people of Eritrea. Brother Sabur aka Backboneless Ben aka Coward Castro is one of them.

Who would forget when Baby Sabur aka Backboneless Ben aka Coward Castro has said Eritrean struggle for Independence was a mistake. He even went further to say Eritrea should accept TPLF led Ethiopia as stronger and the Eritrean government should submit to TPLF government. He said all these and more when TPLF was in Minelik palace controlling everything and anything. After disappearing for long time because he felt shame, now all of a sudden he popped out with a new nick name Sabur. He is trying to pretend as if he cares about the people of Eritrea. Nope!!!

To answer your question about why it is a better idea to open a new thread to oppose PIA led Eritrea government is that simple and straight forward. I am in no way trying to tell you or any citizen for that matter to not express your opposition and criticism to the Eritrean government. Please don't stop doing it. But the subject of the thread is : School book of children stories written by Eritreans in 1936! Can Tegaru show us if you had any written script?. That is why. I don't wear eyeglasses but I tried to read the subject with a magnifying glass to see if Eritrean government was mentioned but I could not find PIA or Eritrean government in it. You tell me if you could please.


Dedebit is always dedeb
R.I.P Abay Tigray and TPLF

Sabur
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Re: School book of children stories written by Eritreans in 1936! Can Tegaru show us if you had any written script?

Post by Sabur » 21 Mar 2020, 00:09


Gash:

You want to hide the ugly truth of wedi medhin berad's crimes against genuine Eritreans, but you can not. The Dictator's track record of incarcerating and abducting Eritreans is replete with facts. Eritreans have been witnessing and experiencing it.

Considering the track record of Isayas crimes specially against Eritreans who advocate for justice, freedom, rule of law, and democracy, the fate of Memhir Isac Tewoldemdhing would have not been any different if he was alive today. He would have been incarcerated by the Dictator Isayas.

The dictator Isayas is the integral part (or center) for all the devastation on the lives of the Eritrean People. You can not hide or run away from the bitter truth. Eritreans could not talk about Literature, development, Science, Education and the well-being of the Eritrean people when there is no Rule of law, Justice, and Freedom, when there is no National Assembly, and when there is not a Single Functioning Ministry.

And with out of Justice and Freedom the spirit of open literature and art is dead. It is just lamentations only.

Eritreans need a Functioning Government by the people, for the people and from the People, not a One Man Rule, to talk about literature, development,... and to push the envelop forward without fear.

Gash wrote:
20 Mar 2020, 22:57
Thank you brother Pushkin for a great thread! It would have been amazing if there was a way to block the ugly m**fker attention seeking wh*re Deqiq ilu and the imbecile Sabur out of your topic. But if we have to deal with this vermines, then let's just ignore and jump their annoying nonsensical posts.

Gash
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Posts: 2630
Joined: 31 May 2007, 11:18

Re: School book of children stories written by Eritreans in 1936! Can Tegaru show us if you had any written script?

Post by Gash » 21 Mar 2020, 01:17

The imbecile emotional brat who calls yourself Sabur,
Let me tell you loud and clear, and tell you for once and for all..

1. The Lion of Nakfa, the guy you call wedi Medhin berad, is Eritrean through and through, in blood and in deeds. I have neither the interest nor the time to explain that to you.

2. The Lion of Nakfa has acomplished things that you wouldn't acompish if you were given a chance to be born and live 10 times of his lifetime.

3. The Lion of Nakfa has an intelligence and insight that your mediocre brain is devoid to comprehend.

4, The Lion of Nakfa is my hero, and he will be in power until the time when he thinks it is time to transfer power. And there is nothing you can do but b1tch about it day in day out in this irrelevant forum that is visited by the same irrelevant people over and over again.

5. The Lion of Nakfa is a man greater than a life, who is in the hearts of millions. His finger prints are all over east Africa, all Africa and around the globe. He is truthful, consistent, visionary and charismatic.

Swallow these truth and live with it...or hang yourself and die!

Sabur
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Posts: 651
Joined: 11 Aug 2018, 07:41

Re: School book of children stories written by Eritreans in 1936! Can Tegaru show us if you had any written script?

Post by Sabur » 21 Mar 2020, 02:33


Gash: ካብ ጀመርካ ኩርኩር ኢሳያስ ዓጋመ::

Let me tell you unequivocally: It is the result of One Man Show dictator wedi medhin Berad's leadership that put the lives of the Eritrean people to the level of misery unseen before. And a low level chap cadre like you would not and could not cut the truth. Eritreans are very well informed now.

You can scream all you can about Isaya, but Isayas is:

"ፎሽካል ብግርህነትን እምነትን ኤርትራውያን ዝተጻወተ : ኢዱ ብደም ኤርትራውያን ዝጠልቅየ ደመኛ ሓሳድ ዓጋመ ኢዩ" and Eritreans know about this.

Your Wedimedhin berad agame:

  • had never fired a bullet against enemy.
    had never planned a single war against the enemy.
    had never done anything during the 26yrs as EPLF.
    He came on the back of the EPLF rank and files.
    But he killed so many Genuine Eritreans.
    And he abused the Eritrean Trust.

All what he did was creating division among Eritreans and building a secrete party within EPLF to secure, and control power by killing Eritreans. He liquidated Genuine Eritreans know as Menakae who challenged his power corruption when they noticed early on; later on he liquidated Eritreans known as Yemin, and in between he killed many genuine Eritreans one by one suspected as Menkae sympathizers and so on.

It is the filthy Wedi medhin Berad who aligned with filthy TPLF (woyanes) to drive Genuine ELF fighters who were calling for a united front between ELF and EPLF since he knew his own power and life was in danger if the unification took place.

The Badme Area that you are shouting now belonging to Eritrea was handed to Woyane as a gift for their service by Isayas in 1982 against the advise EPLF leadership.

Again against all warning and reservations by the EPLF leadership, the insecure Isayas of his ancestors was bed following with Meles Zenawi and talking about Confederation with Ethiopia after Eritrea's Independence.

It costed 25,000 Eritrean Lives during the 1998-2000 war with the filthy TPLF (Woyane) led Ethiopia because of One Man Rule Agame Isayas. And the hasad buda Isayas did not care at all. Instead he followed his with old tactic blaming and arresting Genuine Eritreans (G-13 + others) who asked for the assessment on the war - how and why the war started and how the war was conducted.

As cheap and lap dog of Isayas that you are, you don't care about the Eritrean Lives lost because of the Dictator's adventure.

B!tch, you may lie but you can not hide the Truth.

Check your filthy master Agame Isayas cozying up with Meles Chenawi against the warning and advice of the Eritrea People.


ዕሱብ ዋሒድ !!
ከዛብ ዋሒድ !!
ኩርኩር ዋሒድ !!



Gash wrote:
21 Mar 2020, 01:17
The imbecile emotional brat who calls yourself Sabur,
Let me tell you loud and clear, and tell you for once and for all..

1. The Lion of Nakfa, the guy you call wedi Medhin berad, is Eritrean through and through, in blood and in deeds. I have neither the interest nor the time to explain that to you.

2. The Lion of Nakfa has acomplished things that you wouldn't acompish if you were given a chance to be born and live 10 times of his lifetime.

3. The Lion of Nakfa has an intelligence and insight that your mediocre brain is devoid to comprehend.

4, The Lion of Nakfa is my hero, and he will be in power until the time when he thinks it is time to transfer power. And there is nothing you can do but b1tch about it day in day out in this irrelevant forum that is visited by the same irrelevant people every day.

5. The Lion of Nakfa is a man greater than a life, who is in the hearts of millions. His finger prints are all over east Africa, all Africa and around the globe. He is truthful, consistent, visionary and charismatic.

Swallow these truth and live with it...or hang yourself and die!
Last edited by Sabur on 21 Mar 2020, 03:13, edited 8 times in total.

Eripoblikan
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Posts: 1477
Joined: 15 Sep 2019, 13:49

Re: School book of children stories written by Eritreans in 1936! Can Tegaru show us if you had any written script?

Post by Eripoblikan » 21 Mar 2020, 02:41

Sabur wrote:
21 Mar 2020, 02:33
Sabur Hawey

It is surreal r'esi-zukini here wants to brag about children's stories as if they were written by Tembienite felasi adi Halo in the same manner Zeymeselo writes day-in day-out about Alexander Isak's spoils as if they were Isaias's.

Shame on you cadres of Isaias Afwerki!!! Shame!

Meleket
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Joined: 16 Feb 2018, 05:08

Re: School book of children stories written by Eritreans in 1936! Can Tegaru show us if you had any written script?

Post by Meleket » 21 Mar 2020, 05:11

ናብ ኣርእስቲ ጽሑፍና እናተዋዘናን ‘ሓቂ ኣበይ ኣሎኺ ክደልየኪ’ እናዜምና፡ ‘ንወድሰብ እንተሃብካዮ ናቱ፡ ኣቦይዝጊ ከምኡ ኢዩ ዚፈቱ’ እናመሰልና፡ 'ሰይብል ብከረባብስ' ቢልና እናሠለስና ምስ እንምለስ፡ ቀዳሞት ኤርትራዉያን ወለድና ብመንነቶም ዝሕበኑ ክንዲ ዝዀኑ፡ ኣብ ዝተፈላለየ ጽንኩር ኩነታት ይንበሩ ደኣ እምበር፡ ብዝተፈላለየ ቋንቋታቶም ኣፍልቦም መሊኦም ይዛረቡን ይጽሕፉን ከምዝነበሩ ታሪኽ ዝሰናዶ ህያዉ ምስክር አሎና።

ተጋሩ ኣኅዋትና ካብ ቀደሞም እንዀላይ ሓጸይ ዮሃንስ ጽሑፋቶምን ደብዳቤታቶምን ብቋንቋ ትግርኛ ዝጸሓፍዎ ርኢና ኣይንፈልጥን ኢና፡ እንተሎ ድማ ‘እነኄ ፈረስ እነኄ ጎልጎል’ :mrgreen: ፣ ኣኅዋትና ተጋሩ ጭብጦም ቀሪቦም የርእዩና። ንሕና ብወገንና ሓደ ክልተ ትዕዝብትና ብዛዕባ ትግርኛ ተጋሩ ኣኅዋትና ብኣብነት ክነሰንዪ፦
መጽሓፍ ሊቀሊቃዉንቲ ትግራይ መምህር ገብረችዳን ደስታ ኣብ ገጽ 286 ብዛዕባ ሕድሕድ ውግእ መሳንፍቲ ትግራይ ይገልጹሙ “ከምዚ ዚብል ግጥሚ ሽዑ ኢዩ ንአሉላ ኣባ ነጋ ተገጢሙሉ” ይብሉና! እቱይ ግጥሚ ድማ
እቲ “ወንድስ ተወለደ ኣሉላ ኣባ ነጋ
ሰኞ ሰምቶ ማክሰኞ ገስግሶ ሮብዕ ተዋጋ
ፍግእ ፍግእ ኣበሎም ከም ዱባ
ሕቑን ሕቑን ኣበሎም ከም ላጋ
ወንድስ ተወለደ ኣሉላ ኣባ ነጋ
የማይ ሳሳ በዓለመ ስጋ
አልጋውን ቀምቶ ሰጠው ለባለ ኣልጋ

ካልእ ኣብነት፡ ሐደ እዋን ሐደ ትግራዋይ መማህርትና ገለ ነገር ዓዲጉ’ስ ያኢ፡ ኣንታ ዓርኽና ክንደይ’ከ ሂብካሉ እንተበልናዮ “ናይ ‘ኣስር’ ኢየ ዓዲጌ” ክብለና ይዝከረና! እዙይ ዓርኽና፡ ናይ ኣስር ብር ዚብለና ዝነበረ፡ ናይ ‘ዓሰርተ ብር’ ኢዩ ዓዲጉ ነቢሩ’ያኢ! ዘረባ ተጋሩ ካብ ትግርኛ ኣምቼታትና ዘይሓይሽ፡ ብዙሕ ምስ ኣምሓርኛ ምትህንፋጽ ዛለዎ ዘረባ ኢዩ፡ እዙይ ድማ ባህሪያዊ ኢዩ፣ እቲ ምንታይ እንተተባህለ ምስ ኣኅዋቶምን ኣኅዋትናን ኣምሓሩ ብብዝሒ ስለዝዳወቡ ኢዩ። :mrgreen:

እንታይ ንምባል ኢዩ፡ ተጋሩ ኣብ 1930ታትን 40ታትን ብትግርኛ ክንደየናይ መጻሕፍ ከይጽሕፉ ንምባል ኢዩ፣ ዛለዎም ኣይመስለናን፣ እንተልዩዎም ድማ እነሀ ይቐርቡልና፡ ክንመሃረሉ።

ንኣንፍና ናቕፋን ግንባር ናቕፋን ኣብዙይ ካብተላዕሉ ድማ፡ ንሕና ኤርትራዉያን ምእንቲ ናጽነትና ነታ ሩሆም በጃ ዘሕለፉልና ኣናብስ ጀጋኑ ስውኣትና ንኣብነት ጎይታ ግንባር ናቕፋ ንዝዀነ ንጅግና ስውእ ዓሊ ኢብሪሂም፣ ንጅግና ስውእ በርሀ ጻዕዳን ከምኡ’ውን ንጅግና ስውእ ዓሊሰይድ ዓብደላ ኣንበሳ ካርቺን ናቕፋን ከይንርስኦም ኅልናና ተገድደና።

እዡኣ
pushkin wrote:
19 Mar 2020, 13:54
ኃዉና pushkin ዝቐረባ ጋዜጣ ድማ መንግሥቲ ኤርትራ ሽዑዑ ተሠሪታን ተሓኒጻን ሰሙናዊ ጋዜጣ ከይተረፈ ተውጽእ ከምዝነበረት ግርም ጭብጢ’ያ፡ ድኂሮም ዝመጹ ኩሎም ተጋደልትና ብዘይ ኣፈላላዪ ድማ ኣብልዕሊ እቲ ኣቐዲሙ ብኣቦታቶምን ኣቦሓጐታቶምን ዝተሠረተ መሠረት ሓነጽቲ ምዃኖም ትገልጽ ጭብጢ ኢያ!

እዡኣ’ ዉን
:mrgreen:
pushkin wrote:
19 Mar 2020, 10:00
ኃዉና pushkin ዝቐረባ ገበር መጽሓፍ ግርም ጭብጢ ኢያ። ንታሪኽ እቱይ ዘመን (1520) ብከምዚ ጌሮም ንዝሰነዱልና ካቶሊካዊ ካህን ኣባ ፍራንቸስኮ ኣልቫሬዝ ነመስግኖም፡ ንሃይለ ቦዅረ’ዉን ስለቲ ብቋንቋና ንክንነቦ ነዙይ ታሪኽ ዝተርጐመልና ነመስግኖ! :mrgreen:

ሓቂ ምስ ገለጽና ንሓሶት ነሸቝርራ፣
ፍለጡና በሉ ንሕና ኢና ኤርትራ!!!
:mrgreen:

pushkin
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Posts: 6720
Joined: 23 Jul 2015, 06:10

Re: School book of children stories written by Eritreans in 1936! Can Tegaru show us if you had any written script?

Post by pushkin » 21 Mar 2020, 05:59

The earliest written example of Tigrinya is a text of local customary laws, dating back to the 13th century. It was found in the districts of Dibarwa & Logo Sarda in Eritrea. The first literary text in Tigrinya was published in Europe. In 1895, an Eritrean scholar who was studying Italian and Latin and taught Tigrinya in Naples, published a pamphlet in Rome giving an account of his journey to Italy five years earlier. He was very conscious of his trailblazing role as "the father of Tigrinya literature." In his foreword to the work, he wrote that "our main drive has been to furnish those who yearn to learn Tigrinya with material for exercise." The content of the pamphlet indicates that his 3 primary audience, however, was the educated elite of his home country, as it focuses on the author's impressions of the exotic country to which he had traveled.

The first work published in Tigrinya was a translation of the Four Gospels by Dabtera Mateos. It was written by an Eritrean in the 1830s and was published in 1866 by Isenberg, in Basle, Switzerland. The Tigrinya title is ወንጌል ቅዱስ ናይ ጎይታና ናይ ምድሓኒናን የሱስ ክርስቶስ. This work is of major significance because it marks the first appearance of the Tigrinya language in book form as well as in a full Ge’ez script.

European missionaries were responsible for a stream of publications from the 1890s onwards, including the first Tigrinya language newspaper in 1909, but that it did not last long. During the British Military Administration in 1941-1952, the Ministry of Information of Eritrea published a weekly newspaper in Tigrinya. At that time, a single newspaper would cost about 5 cents; the number of copies of the newspaper sold per week would reach up to 5,000. At that time, it was reported to be the first of its kind.


Selam/
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Posts: 3875
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Re: School book of children stories written by Eritreans in 1936! Can Tegaru show us if you had any written script?

Post by Selam/ » 21 Mar 2020, 07:30

What is the title of Alvarez’s book?

pushkin wrote:
19 Mar 2020, 10:00

Deqi-Arawit
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Location: Bujumbura Brundi

Re: School book of children stories written by Eritreans in 1936! Can Tegaru show us if you had any written script?

Post by Deqi-Arawit » 21 Mar 2020, 09:27

Gash wrote:
20 Mar 2020, 22:57
Thank you brother Pushkin for a great thread! It would have been amazing if there was a way to block the ugly m**fker attention seeking wh*re Deqiq ilu and the imbecile Sabur out of your topic. But if we have to deal with this vermines, then let's just ignore and jump their annoying nonsensical posts.

ኢሂ ኣንቲ ጀልፋፍ ቆሳል ቲፎዞ ወዲ መድሕን በራድ. ኣለኺ ዲኺ ድኣ.

Sabur
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Re: School book of children stories written by Eritreans in 1936! Can Tegaru show us if you had any written script?

Post by Sabur » 21 Mar 2020, 11:07


Hawzen - ሕውዝውዝ ኩርኩር ኢሳያስ ዓጋመ - Isayas Favorite B!TCH.

Now you reached the lowest point of despair - Lying. What a Coward Liar and a Pathetic B!tch !

No amount of lying and manufacturing lies after lies can coverup for what you have said about Sawa abuse. It is on the record.

"Sabur never used another name Ben and/or Castro. Why would I? But When a cheap and pathetic b!tch like you Hawzen could not defend and own what they said, deception and lying become their ultimate defense."

What a lousy liar and a pathetic character that the B!tch Hawzen is.

Bring the record out of what you claimed is true if you have it. And It is obvious you can not since lying is in your DNA.

Every one knows that you are a pathetic and a lousy liar, and cheap prostitute who vies for the lowest bidder Isayas Agame.

Nothing you can do about it except lying, pimping and prostituting for Isayas Agame. That is all you can and that is all you have.

Every time Hawzen opens his pacific ocean mouth, his credibility drops south to the bottom.

ጕሒላ ሓሳድ ኩርኩር ኢሳያስ !!

ከዛብ ዋሒድ !!

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Isayas b!tches want to hide the ugly truth of wedi medhin berad's crimes against genuine Eritreans, but they can not. The Dictator's track record of incarcerating and abducting Eritreans is replete with facts. Eritreans have been witnessing and experiencing it.

"Considering the track record of Isayas crimes specially against Eritreans who advocate for justice, freedom, rule of law, and democracy, the fate of Memhir Isac Tewoldemdhing would have not been any different if he was alive today. He would have been incarcerated by the Dictator Isayas".

The dictator Isayas is the integral part (or center) for all the devastation on the lives of the Eritrean People. You can not hide or run away from the bitter truth. Eritreans could not talk about Literature, development, Science, Education and the well-being of the Eritrean people when there is no Rule of law, Justice, and Freedom, when there is no National Assembly, and when there is not a Single Functioning Ministry.

"And with out of Justice and Freedom the spirit of open literature and art is dead. It is just lamentations only".

Eritreans need a Functioning Government by the people, for the people and from the People, not a One Man Rule, to talk about literature, development,... and to push the envelop forward without fear.


Hasad buda Isayas Agame cozying up with Meles Chenawi:



Hawzen wrote:
20 Mar 2020, 23:31

Who would forget when Baby Sabur aka Backboneless Ben aka Coward Castro has said Eritrean struggle for Independence was a mistake. He even went further to say Eritrea should accept TPLF led Ethiopia as stronger and the Eritrean government should submit to TPLF government. He said all these and more when TPLF was in Minelik palace controlling everything and anything. After disappearing for long time because he felt shame, now all of a sudden he popped out with a new nick name Sabur. He is trying to pretend as if he cares about the people of Eritrea. Nope!!!



Dedebit is always dedeb
R.I.P Abay Tigray and TPLF

pushkin
Member+
Posts: 6720
Joined: 23 Jul 2015, 06:10

Re: School book of children stories written by Eritreans in 1936! Can Tegaru show us if you had any written script?

Post by pushkin » 21 Mar 2020, 11:42

Would you please stop infesting this important educative thread by posting irrelevant topics! Thanks for your cooperation 8)
Sabur wrote:
21 Mar 2020, 11:07

Hawzen - ሕውዝውዝ ኩርኩር ኢሳያስ ዓጋመ - Isayas Favorite B!TCH.

Now you reached the lowest point of despair - Lying. What a Coward Liar and a Pathetic B!tch !

No amount of lying and manufacturing lies after lies can coverup for what you have said about Sawa abuse. It is on the record.

"Sabur never used another name Ben and/or Castro. Why would I? But When a cheap and pathetic b!tch like you Hawzen could not defend and own what they said, deception and lying become their ultimate defense."

What a lousy liar and a pathetic character that the B!tch Hawzen is.

Bring the record out of what you claimed is true if you have it. And It is obvious you can not since lying is in your DNA.

Every one knows that you are a pathetic and a lousy liar, and cheap prostitute who vies for the lowest bidder Isayas Agame.

Nothing you can do about it except lying, pimping and prostituting for Isayas Agame. That is all you can and that is all you have.

Every time Hawzen opens his pacific ocean mouth, his credibility drops south to the bottom.

ጕሒላ ሓሳድ ኩርኩር ኢሳያስ !!

ከዛብ ዋሒድ !!

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Isayas b!tches want to hide the ugly truth of wedi medhin berad's crimes against genuine Eritreans, but they can not. The Dictator's track record of incarcerating and abducting Eritreans is replete with facts. Eritreans have been witnessing and experiencing it.

"Considering the track record of Isayas crimes specially against Eritreans who advocate for justice, freedom, rule of law, and democracy, the fate of Memhir Isac Tewoldemdhing would have not been any different if he was alive today. He would have been incarcerated by the Dictator Isayas".

The dictator Isayas is the integral part (or center) for all the devastation on the lives of the Eritrean People. You can not hide or run away from the bitter truth. Eritreans could not talk about Literature, development, Science, Education and the well-being of the Eritrean people when there is no Rule of law, Justice, and Freedom, when there is no National Assembly, and when there is not a Single Functioning Ministry.

"And with out of Justice and Freedom the spirit of open literature and art is dead. It is just lamentations only".

Eritreans need a Functioning Government by the people, for the people and from the People, not a One Man Rule, to talk about literature, development,... and to push the envelop forward without fear.


Hasad buda Isayas Agame cozying up with Meles Chenawi:



Hawzen wrote:
20 Mar 2020, 23:31

Who would forget when Baby Sabur aka Backboneless Ben aka Coward Castro has said Eritrean struggle for Independence was a mistake. He even went further to say Eritrea should accept TPLF led Ethiopia as stronger and the Eritrean government should submit to TPLF government. He said all these and more when TPLF was in Minelik palace controlling everything and anything. After disappearing for long time because he felt shame, now all of a sudden he popped out with a new nick name Sabur. He is trying to pretend as if he cares about the people of Eritrea. Nope!!!



Dedebit is always dedeb
R.I.P Abay Tigray and TPLF

Digital Weyane
Member
Posts: 3376
Joined: 19 Jun 2019, 21:45

Re: School book of children stories written by Eritreans in 1936! Can Tegaru show us if you had any written script?

Post by Digital Weyane » 21 Mar 2020, 12:00

The first children's book was published in Tigray in 1968, titled "The TPLF Manifesto," and it was authored by our great visionary leader Abune Meles Zenawi of Adwa. We the children of Adwa, such as myself, Sabur, Awash, kerenite and Deqi-Arawit, we grew up reading the book and we are now called The Digital Weyane. I am a very proud Digital Weyane. 8) 8)



Apology Notice: Our great leader Abune Meles Zenawi was forced to write the children's book using the Amharic language because, in 1968, we Weyane didn't have a software that translates Amharic into the Tigrigna language. We're very sorry about that.

Meleket
Member
Posts: 642
Joined: 16 Feb 2018, 05:08

Re: School book of children stories written by Eritreans in 1936! Can Tegaru show us if you had any written script?

Post by Meleket » 23 Mar 2020, 05:12

“ሕጂ’ዉን ሓቂ ኣበይ ኣሎኺ፣ ክደልየኺ!” እናዜምና፡ ንሓበሬታታት ካብ ምንጮም ምውካስና ክንቅጽል ኢና። ሓዉና pushkin ኣብ ላዕሊ ዝጸሓፈን ሰለስተ ሕጥበ ጽሑፋት ፍልፍል ወይ ምንጪ ሃበሬታኡ እዚኣ መጽናዕታዊ ጽሑፍ ናይ ኣብርሃም ነጋሽ ኣብ ሳንታ ክላራ ዮኒቨርሲቲ ትመስል። ምሉእ ትሕዝቶ ናይታ Abstract ወይ ጽሟቕ መጽናእቲ ኣብርሃም ነጋሽ ድማ እነሀት። ፍልልየን ሃሰስ ምባል ናባኹም! :mrgreen:
https://scholarcommons.scu.edu/library/131/
The Origin and Development of Tigrinya Language Publications (1886 - 1991) Volume One
Abraham Negash, Santa Clara University


Document Type = Dissertation
Publication Date = 2016

Abstract
Tigrinya is a Semitic language spoken in Eritrea and in the Tigray Region of Northern Ethiopia. Tigrinya is one of the nine languages in Eritrea. It was one of Eritrea's official languages (along with Arabic) during the short-lived federation with Ethiopia (1952-1962). When Ethiopia officially annexed Eritrea in 1962, Amharic also formally replaced Tigrinya and Arabic; and was established as an official language by the imperial government of Ethiopia. In 1993, when Eritrea officially declared its independence through referendum. Tigrinya regained its status as a working language.

Tigrinya has its own alphabet of 32 letters adopted from Ge'ez, a language which exists with a very limited function within the Coptic Orthodox and Catholic Churches. Like English, Tigrinya is written from left to right. Although the Tigrinya script might look difficult, pronunciation is simple and straightforward, as the phonetic symbols closely resemble pronunciation.

The earliest written example of Tigrinya is a text of local customary laws, dating back to the 13th century. It was found in the district of Logo Sarda, Akele Guzai in Eritrea. The first literary text in Tigrinya was published in Europe. In 1895 Feseha Giyorgis, a scholar who was studying Italian and Latin and taught Tigrinya in Naples, published a pamphlet in Rome giving an account of his journey to Italy five years earlier. He was very conscious of his trailblazing role as "the father of Tigrinya literature." In his foreword to the work he wrote that "our main drive has been to furnish those who yearn to learn Tigrinya with material for exercise." The content of the pamphlet indicates that his 3 primary audience, however, was the educated elite of his home country, as it focuses on the author's impressions of the exotic country to which he had travelled.

The first work published in Tigrinya was a translation of the Four Gospels by Dabtera Matewos. It was written in the 1830s and was published in 1866 by Isenberg, in Basle, Switzerland. The Tigrinya title is ወንጌል ቅዱስ ናይ ጎይታና ናይ ምድሓኒናን የሱስ ክርስቶስ. This work is of major significance, because it marks the first appearance of the Tigrinya language in book form as well as in a full Ge’ez script.

European missionaries were responsible for a stream of publications from the 1890s onwards, including the first Tigrinya language newspaper in 1909, but that it did not last long. During the British Military Administration in 1941-1952, Ministry of Information of the administration published a weekly newspaper in Tigrinya. At that time, a single newspaper would cost about 5 cents; the number of copies of the newspaper sold per week would reach up to 5,000. At that time, it was reported to be the first of its kind.

There is no standard bibliography of Tigrinya publications. In an effort to address this gap, I have prepared what I think is the first annotated bibliography in two volumes. I hope that this publication will provide a summary and evaluation of books written in Tigrinya that I have been able to locate and analyze. It is also my belief that this work will be of great use to researchers and future generations and will enhance the development of Tigrinya language and literature.

In compiling this work, I have traveled extensively and conducted research in libraries and archives in Asmara, Addis Ababa, Sweden, and Italy. I also interviewed and consulted with knowledgeable individuals about early publications. After collecting bibliographic information for over 760 publications, I arranged individual records in alphabetical order by author, followed by title, place and date of publication, and number of pages.

During the process of my work I have come to realize the following facts:
1. Books written in Tigrinya are far more numerous than many people realize.
2. Because of the large number of discovered publications, a published bibliography would be of great importance to researchers.
3. Most books published in Tigrinya have incomplete information regarding dates and places of publication.
The bibliography presented here is the first one of its kind. It does not, however, claim to be comprehensive. I would be very pleased if this book stimulates and encourages other researchers to make additional entries.
After 1991 the number of books published in Tigrinya has increased tremendously. Volume one of this work includes all publications before 1991. And Volume Two will include all the works published since 1991.
Recommended Citation
Negash, Abraham, "The Origin and Development of Tigrinya Language Publications (1886 - 1991) Volume One" (2016). Staff publications, research, and presentations. 131.
https://scholarcommons.scu.edu/library/131
pushkin wrote:
21 Mar 2020, 05:59
The earliest written example of Tigrinya is a text of local customary laws, dating back to the 13th century. It was found in the districts of Dibarwa & Logo Sarda in Eritrea. The first literary text in Tigrinya was published in Europe. In 1895, an Eritrean scholar who was studying Italian and Latin and taught Tigrinya in Naples, published a pamphlet in Rome giving an account of his journey to Italy five years earlier. He was very conscious of his trailblazing role as "the father of Tigrinya literature." In his foreword to the work, he wrote that "our main drive has been to furnish those who yearn to learn Tigrinya with material for exercise." The content of the pamphlet indicates that his 3 primary audience, however, was the educated elite of his home country, as it focuses on the author's impressions of the exotic country to which he had traveled.

The first work published in Tigrinya was a translation of the Four Gospels by Dabtera Mateos. It was written by an Eritrean in the 1830s and was published in 1866 by Isenberg, in Basle, Switzerland. The Tigrinya title is ወንጌል ቅዱስ ናይ ጎይታና ናይ ምድሓኒናን የሱስ ክርስቶስ. This work is of major significance because it marks the first appearance of the Tigrinya language in book form as well as in a full Ge’ez script.

European missionaries were responsible for a stream of publications from the 1890s onwards, including the first Tigrinya language newspaper in 1909, but that it did not last long. During the British Military Administration in 1941-1952, the Ministry of Information of Eritrea published a weekly newspaper in Tigrinya. At that time, a single newspaper would cost about 5 cents; the number of copies of the newspaper sold per week would reach up to 5,000. At that time, it was reported to be the first of its kind.

ብርግጽ ብዛዕባ ስነጽሑፍ ትግርኛ ክንዛረብ እንከሎና ኣብ ኣከለ ጉዛይ ትርከብ ሎጎሳርዳ ፈለማ ትጥቀስ ከምዝኾነት እዛ መበቖላዊት መጽናዕታዊ ጽሑፍ ኣብርሃም ነጋሽ ትገልጽ አላ። ሓዉና pushkin ምስ ሎጎ ሳርዳ ንድባርዋ ኣጎዝጕዝ ዘበላ ይመስል። ብርግጽ ድባርዋን ከባቢኣን ብኩሉ ዙርይኣን ብተዛረብቲ ቋንቋ ትግርኛ ዝተከበባ ስለዝዀና፡ ብዙሕ ቃላት መበቆላዊ ትግርኛ ከዚነን ከምዘለዋ ዘስተውዓለ ጥራሕ ኢዩ ዚፈልጦ። ኣነ ኣብ ሓደ ወዲ ዓዲ ኹቡሎ ሓወይን ቋንቋ ላዛ ትግርኛኡን ክገልጾ ዘይኽእል ጦብላሕታን ኣድናቆትን ኣሎኒ። እቲ ምንታይ እንተተባሀልኩ፡ ንሱ ዚጥቐመሎም ቃላት ትግርኛ ኣመና መሰጥትን ገለጽትን እሞ ድማ ብግቡእ ኪጥቀመሎም ስለዘስተውዓልኹ’የ። መብዛሕትኡ ምስ ተዛረብቲ ካልኦት ቋንቋታትና ዚዳወብ ተዛራባይ ትግርኛ ድማ ቃላት እናለቀሐን እናተለቐሔን ንትግርኛ ብቃላት ‘ኣሃቢትምዎ’ዩ’፡ እዙይ ድማ ባህሪያዊ ከይዲ ምዕባለ ቋንቋ ምዃኑ ይግለጽ ኢዩ። እንተ ከባቢ ድባርዋ ግን ንዝበዝሑ መበቆላዊ ቃላት ትግርኛ ናይ ምዕቓብ ተኽእሎኡ ዓቢ ኢዩ።

ኣቦና ዓቢ ፕሮፌሰር ስብሃቱ ገብረሚካኤል ኵፍሉ ብዛዕባ ትግርኛ ዛለዎም ሃሳባት ግሩም ኢዩ። ታሪኽ “ማይ በላ” መብዛሕትኡ ኪዝረብ ሰሚዕናዮ’ና፣ ኣቦና ዓቢዪ ብሮፌሰር ስብሃቱ ድማ “ማይ በላ” ንዝተበሃለሉ ዘመን ብምጽብጻብ እዛ ማይ በላ ደኣ ትግርኛና እንደኣላ ቢሎም፡ ትግርኛ ኣብቱይ ሽዑዑ ግዜ በኣል ንግሥቲ ኣዜብ ወይ ማክዳ ወይ ሳባን ህዝበንን ይጥቐሙሉ ነቢሮም ይብሉና! ንትግርኛ ድማ ምስ ፈለስቲን ሊቃውንትን ኣባ ሓኒ እናተሓሓዙ ኬዘንትዉ ሰሚዕናዮም ነቢርና። ግርም ዛንታ’ኡ ደራዒ ጭብጢ ግና የድልዮ እንተበልናዮም “ብኣይቲ መጪኻ” ከመዘይብሉና ንኣምን! :mrgreen:

ንሓቂ ምስ ገለጽና ንሓሶት ነሸቝርራ፡
ፍለጡና በሉ ንሕና ኢና ኤርትራ!!!

Meleket
Member
Posts: 642
Joined: 16 Feb 2018, 05:08

Re: School book of children stories written by Eritreans in 1936! Can Tegaru show us if you had any written script?

Post by Meleket » 30 Mar 2020, 09:25

እዙይ ጽሑፍ ነቶም ኣብ መጽናዕታዊ ጽሑፋት ዝግደሱ ጥራይ ይምልከት፡ :mrgreen: http://wurayna.com/2010/index.php/2016 ... 9%B5.html ብርግጽ ነዙይ መጽናዕታዊ ጽሑፍ “ምስ ኵሉ እንተታቱን ኢንታታቱን” ነቢብካ ዘይምድናቕ ኣይከኣልን ኢዩ።

መምህር ፍስሃ ሃይሉ (ኣክሱም ዩኒቨርስቲ) ድማ ኣገናዕ፣ ቀጽሎ እናበልና ብኤርትራዊ ጭዉነት ነበረታትዖ! :mrgreen: ነቶም ከም ኣብርሃም ነጋሽ ካብ ዩኒቨርስቲ ሳንታ ክላራ፣ ከም ብሮፌሶር ስብሃቱ ገብረሚካኤል፣ ከም ሰለሙን ጸሃየ፣ ከም ተኪኤ ተስፋይን መምህር ፍስሃ ሃይሉን ዝኣመሰሉ ብቕንዕና ምርምር ንዘካየዱ ዘለዉ ሰባት ብሓፈሻ ‘ካብ ለበዳ ኮሮና ይሰውርኩም፣ ኃይሊ’ውን ይሃብኩም’ ንብሎም።

ንሓቂ ምስ ገለጽና ንሓሶት ነሸቝርራ፣
ፍለጡና በሉ ንሕና ኢና ኤርትራ!
:mrgreen:

ፀፍሒ ታሪክና 3000 ዓመት ዶ 5000 ዓመት
መምህር ፍስሃ ሃይሉ (ኣክሱም ዩኒቨርስቲ)

ኣብ ማሕበራዊ ሚዳያ እሞ ብተጋሩ ብተደጋጋሚ ዝቐርብ ሓሳብ ኣሎ፡፡ እዙይ እውን ትግራይ ወናኒት ታሪክ 3000 ዘመን ዝብል እዩ፡፡ መጀመርያ እዚ ሓሳብ መሰረቱ እንታይ እዩ? ዕለሙኡኸ? ንምንተይከ ከምኡ ይበሃል? ኢለ ንከሓትትን መረዳእታ ክእልሽን ተገዲደ፡፡

መበገሲ እዚ ቀመር ማለት 3000 ታሪክ ሃፀይ ምልሊክ ወዲ ሶሎሞን ስለ ዝኾነ ፀፍሒ ታሪክና ካብ ኢዩ ዝጅምር ዝብል ይመስል፡፡ እዚ ኣረዳድኣ መሰረቱ እንታይ እዩ ኢልና እንተሓተትና ክብረነገስት ዝብል መልሲ ንረክብ፡፡ ግርም ኢልና ክብረነገስት እንተመርመርና ንግስተ ሳባ መበል 52 ንግስቲ ከምዝኾነት ማለት ቅድሚ ንግስተ ሳባ 51 ነገስታት ከምዝ ነገሱ ክብረ ነገስት ባዕሉ ይዝርዝር፡፡ ነገር ግን ዜና መዋእል እዞም ነገስታት ኣብ ክብረ ነገስት እኳ እንተተሰነደ ታሪክና 3000 ዘመን እዩ ስለ እንብል ታሪክ በቲ እዋን ዝነበረ ህዝብን እቶም 51 ነገስታትን ቆሪፅና ስለ ዝገደፍናዮ ኣብ ታሪክና ኣይተጠቓለለን፡፡ ስለዚ ክልተ መሰረታዊ ጌጋታት ከም ዝተፈፀሙ ንርዳእ፡፡

1 ቅድሚ ንግስተ ሳባ ዝነበሩ ዜና መዋእል 51 ነገስታት ኣኽሱምን ዘመን ንግስተ ሳባ ባዕላን ማለት ዘበን መንግስትነት 52 ነገስታት ቆሪፅካ ብምድርባይ ካብ ወዳ ሃፀይ ምልሊክ ታሪክ ምቕማር ኢሳይነሳዊ ጥራሕ ዘይኮነስ ዘይ ምኽነያታዊ እውን እዩ፡፡ ታሪክ ከም ታሪክ ካብ መጀመርያ ክጅምር እናተገበኦ ካብ ማእኸል ምጅማር ዕላማ አዚ ኣካይዳ ግልፂ ኣይኮነን፡፡ ስለዚ ንሕና ዜና መዋእል እዞም 52 ነገስታት ኣኽሱም ዘየጠቓልል ቁፅሪ ደጋጊምና ምረቋሕና ጌጋ እምበር ታሪክነቱ ኣይተርኣየንን፡፡

2 ሃፀይ ምልሊክ ወራሴ ምንግስት ክኸውን ዝበቕዐ ወዲ ንግስተ ሳባ ብምዃኑ እምበር ወዲ ንጉስ ሶሎሞን ከም ዝኸፐነ ኣፍና ደም ክሳብ ዝተፍእ ዋላ እንተመደርና ወረቐትን ግዜን ነበኽን እምበር ነቲ ዘንብብ ሰብ ግን ክነእምን ኣይንኽእልን፡፡ ምኽንያቱ ንግስተ ሳባ ካብ ኣቦኣ ኣጋቦስ ማለት መበል 51 ንጉስ ኣኽሱም ዝነበረ እያ መንግስትነት ዘተረከበት፡፡ ስለዚ ኣኽሱማውያን ንኣማኢት ዓመታት ዝመስረትዎ ዝተረጋገአን ተኸታታልን፣ ትካላዊ ቅርፂን ዘለዎ ስነ መንግስቶም ገዲፎም በቲ እዋን 120 ዓመት ዘቑፀረ ማለት 3 ነገስታት ሳኦል፣ ዳዊት ሶሎሞን ዘንገሰ መንግስቲ እስራኤል ካብ ሶሎሞን ካብ ዝውለድ ምልሊክ መጀመሪ መንግስቲ ኣኽሱም ገይሮም ይቕበልዎ እዮም ዝብል እምነት የብለይን፡፡ ብስሩ እውን ነገስታት ኣኽሱም ካብ ዝገደፉልና ፅሑፋት እምኒን ገንዘብን ተመኪሑ ወዲ ሶሎሞን እየ ዝበለ ዋለ ሓደ ንጉስ የለን፡፡ እዚ ሶሎሞናዊ ዝብል ፖለቲካ መሬት ክሕዝ ዝኸኣለ ካብ ዛጉየ ምንግስትነት ንምምንጣል ዝተቐየሰ ፖለቲካዊ ሽርሒ ኮይኑ ኮፕቲክ ግብፂ ብኣቡነ ተክለሃይማኖት ዘደብረ ፅላልሽ ኣቢላ ብዘካየደቶ መሰለቸውን ሃይማኖት መሰረት ዝገበረን ስብከት እዩ፡፡ ከም ሓቂ እንተዝኾን እማ ብነበረያ ነበረ ዘይኮነስ ካብ ኣኽሱም ብቐጥታ ዝውለዱ ነገስታት ዛጉየ እዮም፡፡ ናብ ርሑቕ እንተይ ከድና ኣፍቶም ካብ ከውሒ ወቒሮም ዝሃነፅዎም መዳርግቲ ኣልቦ ኣብያተ ክርስትያናት ሓወልቲ ኣኽሱም ኣብ መሻኹቲ እቶም ኣብያተ ክርስትያናት ኣሎ፡፡

ምንግስቲ ኣኽሱም ከም ሽባኻ ቆሪፅካ ብምትካል ዝፀደቐ ኦም ዘይኮነስ ወራሲ ምንግስቲ ዳዕማት ከም ዝኾነ ስነ ፅሑፍ ክልቲኦም መንግስታት ብቑዕ ምስክር እዩ፡፡ መንግስቲ ዳዕማት ድማ መቐፀልታ መንግስቲ ፑንት ከምዝኾነ ይእመን፡፡ ጂኦ ሂስትሪ እዚ እንነብረሉ መልከኣምድሪ መሰረት ብምግባር ስረመሰረት ታሪክናን ቀመር ታርክናን ንምፍላጥ ፑንትን መንግስቲ ፑንትን ምፅናዕ ወድዓዊ እዩ፡፡ ምኽንያቱ ትግራይ ኣካል ፑንት ስለ ዝነበረት፡፡ ታሪክ እንትበሃል መረዳእታ ስለ ዘኾነ ብዝነበሮም ንግዳዊ ርክብ ብዛዕባ ፑንት መረዳእታ ዝገደፉልና ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን አዮም፡፡ ጥንታዊ ታሪክና ንምፍላጥ ማለት ኣብ ላዕላይ ከም ዝረአናዮ 3000 ዓመት ተቖሪፁ ዝመፀ ብምኳኑ እጅብሽያን ሄሮግሎፊክስ ምፅናዕ ፅባሕ ክንሰርሖ ይሕደር ዝበሃል ስራሕ ኣይኮነን፡፡ ስለዚ ዋላኳ ከም ወለድና እምኒ ወቒርና ወይ ካብ ቆርበት ብራና ኣዳሊና ታሪክና ኣይንፅሓፍ እዚ ዘመን ዝጠልቦ መረዳእታ እጅብሽያን ሄሮግሎፊክስ ብዛዕባ ፑንት ብምፅናዕን ብምትንታንን ታሪክና ክንቕምር ምኽንያታዊ እዩ፡፡

ትግራይን ተጋሩን ኣብ ጥንቲ ሄሮግሎፊክስ ግብፂ
ናፍቲ ቀንዲ ወራይና ቅድሚ ምኻደይ እዚ ርአሲ ከፅንዕ ዝኸኣልኩሉ ምኽንያት ዶክተር ሃብተማርያም ኣሰፋ የኢትዮጵያ ታሪክ ጥያቄዎች እና ባህሎች ኣብ ዝብል መፅሓፎም (1986) ተጋሩ ኣብ ሰሜን ኢትዮጵያ ዝነብሩ ጥንታውያን ማሕበረሰብ ከምዝኾኑ ኣብ ፅሑፍ ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን መረዳእታ ከም ዘሎ ንተክለፃድቅ መኩርያ ብምርቋሕ ይገልፁ፡፡ ንዶክተር ሃፍተማርያም ብምምስጋን እዚ መረዳእታ ቀልዲ ከምዘይኮነ ይርደአኒ እሞ መፅሓፍ ትክለፃድቅ መኩርያ ብመውካስ ከረጋግፅ የንቦ፡፡ ኮይኑ ግን ዶክተር ሃብተማርያም ተጋሩ ኢሎም ዘቐመጥዎ ተክለፃድቅ መኩርያ ኣብ መፅሓፉ ትግሬ ማለት ካብ ብዙሕ ቁፅሪ ተጋሩ ናብ ሰብ ድዩ ስም ቦታ ዘይፈሊ ትገሬ ኢሉ ስለ ዘቐመጦ እዚ ኣገላልፃ ኣገላልፃ ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን ከም ዘይኮነ ርዱእ ገይረ፡፡ ምኽንያቱ ስነ ልሳን ዘይተምሃረ ማነት በዓል ሞያ ዘይኮነ ከምቲ ራእሲ ንግዲ ገብረሂወት ባይከዳይ ዝበልዎ እንታይ እመስሕ እንታይ እድረር እናበለ ዝፅሕፍ ብዙሕ ቁፅርን ነፀላ ቁፅርን ቃላት ኣብ ታሪካዊ ስነ ልሳን እሞ ይትረፍ ኣብ ታሪክ ዘለዎ ዕቱብ ረብሓ ኣይርደኦን፡፡ ስለዚ ፅሑፍ ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን ሄሮግሎፊክስ ከም ዘለ ብጥሪኡ ምርካብ ናይ ግድን ስለ ዝኾነ ጉዕዞ ኣለሻ መረዳእታ ቀፂሉ፡፡ ብዙይ መሰረት ስም ማሕበረ ሰብን ቦታታት ትግራይን ሓማሴንን ኣብ ዜና መዋእል ንግስቲ ሃትሸፕሱትን (1501-1479 ዓ/ዓ) ንጉስ ቱትሞሲስ III (1479-1447 ዓ/ዓ) (Jackson 1958: 16) ተከረወን አረከረከን ብፅሑፍ ሄሮግሎፊክሰ ብጥሪኡ ከም ዘሎ ብግልፂ ሰኒዱ ኣቅሚጥዎ ኣሎ፡፡ ስለዚ ስራሕና እዚ መረዳእታ ብመሰረት ስልቲ ታሪካዊን ንፅፅራውን ስነ ልሳን ምትንታን ይኸውን፡፡ እዚ ፅሑፍ ኣካዳሚ ቋንቋታት ትግራይ ቁፅሪ 2 ኣብ ዘሐተሞ ተደሪኹ ዝቐረበ ስለ ዝኾነ በዚ ኣጋጣሚ ንኣቋት ከምስግን እፈቱ፡፡

ናፍቲ ዋና ውራይና እንትንምለስ ታሪካዊ ስነ ልሳን ከም ዘነግረና ግምታዊ መናበቢ ብምውሳኽ እንረኽቦ ሓበሬታ ምስ ተነበብቲ እንትነፃፀር ብጣዕሚ ውሑድ እዩ፡፡ ስለዚ መሰረት ትኹረትና ኣብ መናበብቲ ዘይኮነስ ኣብ ተነበብቲ እዩ፡፡ኣብ ዝርርብ ወይ spoken language ግን ልክዕ ከም ማንም ቋንቋ እጅፕሽያን እውን መናበብቲ ፍረ ድምፂ ከም ነበርዎ ኣየተሓትትን፡፡ ኮይኑ ግና ኣየአኖም መናበብቲ ፍረ ድምፂ ነይሮም ዝብል ግን ብዜካ ˂ W ˃ ን ˂ Y ˃ ካሊእ ግን መካትዒ እዩ፡፡ ˂ W ˃ = (U) and ˂ Y ˃ = (I) (Loprieno 1995: 14). ˂ W ˃ and ˂ I ˃ are graphemes (Grapheme is a basic minimal unit of writing), but (U) and (I) are phonemes ( Phoneme is a basic unit of sound), ተጋሩ ዝብል ስም ማሕበረሰብ ኣብ ዜና መዋእል ንግስቲ ሃትሸፕሱትን (1501-1479 BC) ንጉስ ቱትሞሲስን III (1479-1447 BC) እጅፕሽያን ሄሮግሎፊክሰ ብኸመይ ኣገባብ ተመዝጉቡ ይርከብ እዩ እቲ ሕቶ?
1 ብናትና ፊደል ተጋሩ ማለት እዩ፡፡ ከመይ ኢሉ?
እዚ ሄሮግሎፊክሰ ከም ዝስዕብ ይትንትንን ይትርጎምን:
ዝውክሎ ‘ተ’, ዝውክሎ ‘ከʔ’ (ብሓፂሩ ከ ማለት እዩ, ተወሳኺ ˂ʔ˃ ብፅሑፍ
እምበር ኣይንበብን) , = ከወ (ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን ፍረድምፂ ‘ረ’ ብዙሕ ቁፅሪ ምኳኑ ንምርዳእ ሰለስተ ግዜ ይፅሕፍዎ (Junge 2001), ( In Egyptian Hieroglyphics, this symbol, refers to foreign country) እዞም ዝተፈላለዩ ፍረ ድምፅታት ከም ዝነበርዎ እንትንጠምሮም (ተ + ከ + ረወ = ተከረወ). ቀፃላይ ሕቶ ከመይ ኢሉ ተከረወ፣ ተጋሩ ኮይኑ ዝብል እዩ? እዞም ክልተ ቃላት ተመሳሰልቲ እዮም እምበር ሓደ ግን ኣይኮኑን፡፡ እቲ ኣፈላላይ ንምርኣይ ኣፍቶም ቃላት ዘለዉ ተነበብቲ ፍረድምፂ ጥራሕ ወሲድና ነነፃፅሮም, In Egyptian hieroglyphics to express foreign names, proper names, two signs represent a consonant (Junge 2001: 41-45) ፡፡
ተ-ከ-ረ-ወ vis-à-vis ተ-ገ-ረ-U
ተ = ተ
ከ ≠ ገ
ረ = ረ
˂ ወ˃ = (U)
እቲ ኣፈላላይ ኣብ ‘ከ’ ን ‘ገ’ን ጥራሕ እዩ፡፡ ኣብ መንጎ ፍረድምፅታት ኣፈላላይ ንምርኣይ እንጥቀመሎም መዐቀኒታት ድምፂ ዝፍጠረሉ ቦታ (place of articulation)፣ ኣፈጣጥራ ድምፂ(manner of articulation)፣ ፍልፍል ኣየርን (initiation) ነዝርን (voicing) እዮም (Catford 1994: 17-22)፡፡ በዚ መሰረት ክልቲኦም /ከ/ ን /ገ/ ላንቃውያን፣ ዕጉታትን ሳንባውያንን እዮም፡፡ ብኻሊእ ገፅ ‘ከ’ ኢነዛሪ እንትኸውን ‘ገ’ ግን ነዛሪ እዩ፡፡ ስለዚ እቲ ኣፈላላይ ኣብ ንዝረት እዩ፡፡ እዞም ድምፀ ዝርርብ ካፍቶም ኣርባዕተ መዐቀኒ ብሰለስተ ማዕረ ስለ ዝኾኑ ከ ≈ ገ እዮም እንተልና ኣመክንያዊ ክልስ ሓሳብ እዩ፡፡ ካብዙይ እንርደኦ ቁም ነገር እዞም ፍረድምፅታት ብጣዕሚ ተመሳሰልቲ እዮም፡፡ ምኽንያቱ ካፍቶም ኣርባዕተ መዐቀንታት ኣብ ሰለስተ ማዕረ ስለ ዝኾኑ ባህሪ እዞም ድምፅታት 75 ፐርሰንት ሓደ አዩ፡፡ ስለዚ እቲ ኣፈላላይ 25 ፐርሰንት ስለዝኾነ ኣብ ከይዲ ምቕያር ፍረድምፂ አጋጢሙ እዩ እንተልና ብስነ ልሳን ባህርያዊ እዩ፡፡ እቲ ኣንፈት ምቕያር ድምፂ ድማ ካብ ኢነዛሪ ናብ ነዛሪ እንተ ኾይኑ ብስነ ልሳን ትርጉም ኣለዎ፡፡ ስለዚ እቲ ከይዲ ብተፅዕኖ መናበብቲ ተካሩ ˃ ተጋሩ (ከ > ገ) ይኸውን፡፡ ኣብ ዓውዲ ስነ ልሳን ኣብ ካሊእ ክፍሊ ዓለም እውን ተመሳሳሊ ከይዲታት ኣለዉ፡፡ ንኣብነት ኣብ ቋንቋ ፈረንሳ: the word ‘seconde’ is pronounced [segond] (ከ > ገ). እዙይ ዓይነታዊ ኣብነት እዩ ን ተካሩ ˃ ተጋሩ (ከ > ገ). ላቲን pacatum > (*) pagado Spanish (ከ > ገ) ‘pacified, pleased’ (Hock 1991:81). ተወሳኺ ኣብነት ንርአ፡፡
ግእዝ ትግርኛ
ፋሲካ ፋሲጋ (ከ > ገ)
ጣልያን ትግርኛ
ካዛ ገዛ (ከ > ገ)
ስለዚ ተካሩ ˃ ተጋሩ
‘ወ’ ናብ ዝብል ፍረድምፂ ክንመፅ ከለና መጀመርያ ቋንቁኡ ትግራይ ዝኾነ ውልቀ ሰብ ትግራዋ-ይ (ተባዕታይ) ትግራወ-ይቲ (ኣንስታይ) ይበሃሉ፡፡ ካብዙይ እንርድኦ ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን ዝመዝገብዎ (ተከረወ) ‘ወ’ ዝብል ፍረድምፂ ጥንታዊ ምኳኑ ንርዳእ፡፡ ምኽንያቱ ኣብ ቋንቋታት ኣፍሮ ሰሜቲክ ቦኽሪ ቃል ወይ ሱር ቃል ሳልሳይ መደብ ነፀላ ቁፅሪ ተባዕታይ ፀታ እዩ ተባሂሉ ስለ ዝእመን፡፡ በዚ መሰረት ነፀላ ቁፅሪ ሳልሳይ መደብ ትግራዋይ (-ወ-)ን ትግራወይቲ (-ወ-)ን ጥንታውነቱ ሓልዩ ስለ እንረኽቦ ጥታውነቱ ነቕ ዘይብል ፅኑዕ ይገብሮ፡፡
ቀፃሊ ሕቶ ነፀላ ቁፅሪ ትግራወ- ምስ ሄሮግሎፊክስ ብምንፅፃር ብኸመይ ተጋሩ ኮይኑ? ዝብል ይኸውን፡፡ ጥንታዊ ወይ ኦርቶዶክስ ኣመሰራርታ ብዙሕ ቁፅሪ ጥሙር ግእዝ (ግዕዝን ትግራይን) ድህረ ጥብቆ ፅግዕተኛ ምእላድ ብምውሳኽ ዘይኮነስ ኣብ ማእኸል እቲ ስም መናበቢ ብምውሳኽ እዩ (Bender 1976: 111)፡፡

1.1 ካ ˃ ጋ ከይዲ ውህደት ድምፂ
መቄዶንያዊ ግሪክ ዝኾነ እስክንድር ዓብዪ ካብ 333 ክሳብ 323 ዓ/ዓ ካብ ግሪክ ተላዒሉ ንግብፂ ሓዊሱ ክሳብ ህንዲ መስሪትዎ ናብ ዝነበረ ገፊሕ ግዝኣት ንምፅንባር ሰሜን አትዮጵያ (ሐዚ ትግራይን ኤርትራን) ኣብ ዝወረረሉ እዋን ተጋሩ መኪቶም ስለዝመለስዎ እቲ ዝነበረ ኩነታት ዜና እስክንድር ኣብ ዝበሃል ብግእዝ ዝተፅሓፈ ጥንታዊ ብራና መፅሓፍ ገፅ 107 ብምጥቃስ ልሳነወርቅ ገብረጊዮርጊስ ከም ዝስዕብ ይቕምጥዎ፡፡ “እስክንድር … ንጉስ እየሸሸ በጀግንነታቸው እየተደነቀ በግርማቸው እየተርበደበደ ትግረ ተጋሩ ኣላቸው፡፡ የነብር ነብሮች ማለት ነው (2000: 181)፡፡”
ኣብ ላዕላይ ከም ዝተገለፀ ተጋሩ ዝብል ስም ቅድሚ እስክንድር ዓብዪ ልዕሊ 1150 ዕድመ ኣለዎ፡፡ እዙይ ከም ዘሎ ኮይኑ እስክንድር ዓብዪ ምስቲ ዝገጠሞ መኸተ ኣነፃፂሩ ነቲ ኩነታት ንምግላፅ ኣናብር ነብርታት ኢሉ ሓሳቡ ገሊፁ አሎ፡፡ እዞም ህዝቢ መን ይበሃሉ ኢሉ ኣብ ዝሓተተሉ ግዜ ተጋሩ ይበሃሉ ኢሎም እንትምልስሉ ብቋንቋ ዮናኒ ወይ ግሪክ ቲግሪስ ማለት ነብሪ ማለት ስለ ዝኾነ እቲ ዝገጠሞ መኸተን ዝሰምዖ ቃል ተመሳሳሊ ስለ ዝኾኖ ኣናብር ነብሪ ኢልዎም፡፡
ናብ ዋና ሓሳብና እንትንምለስ ካብዙይ እንወስዶ ቁም ነገር ከ ˃ ገ ከይዲ ውህደት ድምፂ መዓዝ ተኻይዱ ወይ ተመዓራርዩ እንተ ኢልና ቅድሚ እስክንድር ዓብዪ እዩ እቲ መልሲ፡፡ ስለዚ ብዛዕባ ከይዲ ውህደት ድምፂ ከ ˃ ገ እቲ ሕቶ ተመሊሱ ኣሎ፡፡
ምንም እኳ ናይዚ ምፅናዕቲ ተበግሶ ኣይኹን ተጋሩ ማለት እንታይ ማለት እዩ ኢልና እንተሓቲትና ኣብዚ ሐዚ እዋን መልሱ ትግራይ ተዛረብቲ ማሕበረሰብ እዩ፡፡ ጥንታዊ ወይ ብመፈጠር ቃል ትርጉም ነብሪ ማለት ድዩ ወይ ካሊእ እዩ ንዝብል ኣነ ከምዝርድአንን ከም እተዓዘብክዎን ናይ ብዙሓት ማሕበረሰባት ዓለም ብተወዳደርቶም ዘይኮነስ ባዕሎም ንባዕሎም ዝሃብዎ ስም እተፈላለያ ሃገራት እተፈላለየ ቋንቋ ከም ዝኾነ ርዱእ ኮይኑ ሰብ ዝብል ትርጉም እዩ፡፡ ስለዚ ኣነ ዝመስለኒ ብመሰረት መፈጠር ቃል ትርጉም ትግራዋይ ማለት ቅኑዕ ሰብ ተጋሩ ማለት ቅኑዓት ሰባት ይመስለኒ፡፡ ብካላእ ቋንቋ ግን ካሊእ ትርጉም ክወሃቦ ይኽእል፡፡ ንኣብነት ኣብ ላዕላይ ከም ዝረአናዮ ብቋንቋ ግሪክ ትግራይ ተጋሩ ማለት ነብሪ ኣናብር ማለት ከምዝኾነ ብመረዳእታ ርኢና ኢና፡፡ እቲ ገዛኢ ሕቶ ተጋሩ ንባዕሎም እንታይ ኢሎም ይትርጉምዎ እንተኢልናን ተገረወ፣ ተገረየ ዝብሉ መናበቢ ዘይብሎም ቃላት እንተፅኒዕናዮም ቅኑዕ ሰብ ማለት ከም ዝኾኑ ንርዳእ፡፡ እዙይ ጥንታዊን ስነ ልሳናዊን ትርጉሙ እዩ እምበር ዘይቅኑዕ ትግራዋይ ግን የለን ማለት ኣይኮነን፡፡ ከም ኣብ ማንም ሕብረተ ሰብ ዓለም ኣብ ተጋሩ እውን ቅኑዕ ኣሎ ዘይቅኑዕ ኣሎ፡፡

2 ሓማሱ
ኮንት ሮዚኒ (Conti Rossini 1928: 48) ከም ዝገለፆ ብጣዕሚ ጥንታዊ ዝኾኑ መረዳእታታት ግሪክ ከባቢ አዶሊስ ኮራቾ ይብልዎ፡፡ ነበርቲ እቲ ደሴት ድማ ኡተን ይብልዎም፡፡ እዙይ ብዛዕባ ደሴት ዳህላክ ክንሓስብ ይገብረና፡፡ ሓማሱ ምስ ሓማሴን ዝተተሓሓዘ እዩ ምባል ወድዓዊ እዩ፡፡ ምኽንያቱ እቲ ቃል ብቅጥታ ስለ ዝመሳሰል፡፡ ተካሩ ፀለምቲ ህዝቢ ኩሳ ኮይኖም ቱትሞሲስ ኣብ ዜና መዋእሉ ዝጠቐሶም እዮም፡፡ እዙይ ብኢትዮጵያዊ ቋንቋ ትግራይ ብዙሕ ቁፅሪ ተጋሩ ማለት እዩ ይብል (Translated from Italian to English by Graziano Sava (Dr) in Addis Ababa University Department of Linguistics and then Fisseha Hailu in Axum University translated into Tigrinya)፡፡

ተጋሩ ኣብ ላዕላይ ስለ ዝተገለፀ ኣይምለሶን ግን ኣብ ክልቲኦም ነገስታት ንግስቲ ሃትሸፕሱትን (1501-1479 ዓ/ዓ) ንጉስ ቱትሞሲስ III (1479-1447 ዓ/ዓ) ዜና መዋእል ከም እተኸተበ ልቢ ማለት የድሊ፡፡ ከም ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን ሐመሰወ ክብሉ ከለዉ ምናልባት ሓማሴን ዝባሃል ዓዲ ንምባል ክኾኑ ይኽእሉ ወይ እቲ ማሕበረሰብ ማለቶም እዮም ኢልካ ክልስ ሓሳብ ምንፃፍ ምኽንያታዊ እዩ፡፡ ኣብዚ ክነልዕሎ ዝግበአና ሕቶ እዚ ቃል ጥሙር ግዕዝ ድዩ ኣይኮነን? ዝብል እዩ፡፡ እዚ ቃል ጥሙር ግዕዝ ይመስል ምኽንያቱ ኣብ ትግርኛ ሱር ቃል (ሐ-መ-ሰ) ኣሎ፡፡ ካብዚ ሱር ቃል ሓመሰን ሓመሱን ዝብሎ ቃላት ንረክብ ወይ ንምስርት (Kane 2000: 173)፡፡ እዚ ቦታ ማለት ሓማሴን ምስ ባሕረ ቂሓት ወይ ቀይሕ ባሕሪ ስለ ዝዳቦብ ስራሕቲ ማእቶት እቲ ማሕበረሰብ እውን ምስቲ ባሕሪ ስለ ዝተሓሓዝ ማለት ምዝፋፍ ዓሳ፣ መጉዓዝያ ማይ፣ ሰደድ ምልኻኽን ጠለብ ምቕባልን እቲ ስያመ እውን ብታሪካውነቱ ምስቲ ስራሕቲ ማይ ዝተተሓሓዘ ይመስል፡፡ ምኽንያቱ እቶም ዝተገለፁ ማእቶታዊ ስራሕቲ ባሕሪ ንምፍፃም ሓመሳ ምኽኣል (swimming exercise) ገዛኢ ኩነት እዩ፡፡ ብኻሊእ ኣገላልፃ እቲ ማሕበረ ሰብ maritime society ስለ ዝነበረ እዚ ስም እውን ምስቲ ባሕሪ ዝተተሓሓዘ እዩ ምባል ምኽንያታዊ እዩ፡፡. ኣብ ሓድሓደ መፃሕፍቲ ከም ዝረአኽዎ ሓማሴን ዝብል ቃል ሓማት ሑሴን ካብ ዝብል ዝመፀ እዩ ዝብል ኣሎ፡፡ ኮይኑ ግና እዚ ሓሳብ ምስቲ ኣብ ኣኽሱም ዝተረኸበ ፅሑፍ ሃፀይ ኢዛና ኣይሰማማዕን፡፡ ፅሑፍ ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን ፅሑፍ ሃፀይ ኢዛናን ግን ማዕረ እዩ፡፡ በዚ መሰረት ክፍተት ግዜ እውን ስለ ዘለዎ መረዳእታ ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን ምውሳድ ምኽንያታዊ ስለ ዝኾነ ሓማሴን ካብ ሓመሰ ‘to swim’ ሱር ቃል ዝመፀ እዩ ኢልካ ምድምዳም ይከኣል፡፡ ብተወሳኺ ኣብዚ ቋንቋ ትግራይ ዝዝረበሉ መልከ ኣምድሪ ሓውዝዬን፣ ሰቅዬን፣ ተምቤን ወዘተ ምስ ሓማሴን ተመሳሳሊ ስነ ምእላድ ዘለዎም ኣስማት ስለ ዝኾኑ እዚ ስለ ልሳናዊ በኣታ ጥሙር ግዕዝ (ግዕዝ ወትግራይ) እዩ፡፡

3. ኣቲ (ATY)
ንጉስ ፑንት በሪሁን በዓልቲ ቤቱ ኣቲን ምስ ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን ኣብ ባሕሪ ቀይሕ ብምኽንያት ንግዲ እንት ራኽቡ ዝርኢ ስእሊ
Sources Wells (1969: 241) Baikie (1929: 71)
The king of Punt Parihu Parihu
The wife of the king Ati Aty
እዚ ኣብ ላዕላይ ቀሪቡ ዘኒሀ መረዳእታ ንምትንታን ብስም በዓልቲ ቤት ንጉስ ፑንት ‘Ati’ ንጀምር፡፡ ቋንቋ ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን መናበቢ ስለዘይነበሮ Ati ክፀሓፍ ዘለዎ ከም ʔTY እዩ፡፡ መናበቢ እንትውሰኾ ʔati ብትግርኛ ኣቲ ይኸውን፡፡ ብመሰረት ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን ኣፀሓሕፋ ˂ y ˃ = (i) By Devanagari Principle, grapheme ‘y’ is equal to phoneme ‘i’ (Loprienno 1995: 14). እዚኣቶም ማዕረ እዮም፡፡ እዚ ከይዲ ኣብ ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን ሰዋስው ሕጋውን ባህርያውን እዩ፡፡ ብተመሳሳሊ ኣብትግርኛ እውን (Littman n.d: 15) ከምኡ እዩ፡፡

እዞም ኣብ ላዕላይ ዝረአናዮም ስርዓተ ፅሕፈትን (grapheme) ፍረድምፅን (phoneme) ብምውሳድ ብዙሓት ሕቶታት ምልዓል ይከኣል፡፡ ንኣብነት ብምንታይ ምኽንያት እዚ ቃል ኢትዮፒክ ወይ ትግርኛ ክኸውን ይኽእል? መልከኣ ምድሪ ፑንት ኣብ ግምት ብምእታው ብኸመይ ኢትዮፒክ ወይ ትግርኛ ይኸውን? ቅድም ኢሉ ነዚ ዘፅነዐ በዓል ሞያ ስነ ልሳን ከም ዝበሎ፤ “The old Semitic 2nd person pronouns (ʼanta/ʼatta, ʼanti/ʼatti, ʼantum/ʼattum, ʼantən/ʼattən) are used as vocatives: ʼatta tämähari [tämhari] ‘O student!” (Kogan 1997: 429). ካብዙይ ከም እንርደኦ ትግርኛ እዞም ጥንታውያን በኣታታት ስነ ልሳን ካብ ኣቦ ኣፍሮሰሜትክ (Proto-Afro-Semitic) ከም ዝወረሶም እዩ፡፡

ትግርኛ ብተፈጥርኡ ኣብ ኣስማት ኣፈላላይ ፆታን ቁፅርን ይገብር፡፡ ኣብ ላዕላይ ከም ዝተገለፀ ኣታ ተምሃሪ እንተልና ተባዕታይ እንትኸውን ኣቲ ተምሃሪት ድማ ኣንስተይቲ እያ፡፡ ሓድሓደ ምሁራት ንትግርኛ ብቐረባ ዘይፈልጥዎ፣ ኣቲ ክንዲ ስም እዩ ብምባል ኣብ ካልኣይ መደብ ነፀላ ቁፅሪ ኣንስታይ ፀታ ይምድብዎ፡፡ ኮይኑ ግና ክንዲ ስም ትግርኛ ካልኣይ መደብ ነፀላ ቁፅሪ፣ ኣንስታይ ፀታ ኣቲ ዘይኮነስ ንስኺ እዩ (Kogan 1997: 429)፡፡ ንኣብነት ሓደ ሰብኣይ ንበዓልቲ ገዝኡ ኣቲ በይዛኺ ድራርና ሃብና እንተይሉ፡፡ ኣብዚ ምሉእ ሓሳብ ኣቲ ብንስኺ ኣይትካእን፡፡ ብኻሊእ መዳይ ንስኺ እንዲኺ ኣብ ኣኽሱም ዝነበርኪ ኢሉ እንተሓቲቱ? ኣብዚ ምሉእ ሓሳብ ንስኺ ብኣቲ ኣይትካእን፡፡ ንኣብነት ኣነ ኣብ ዝዓበኹሉ ከባቢ ወለዲ ውላዶም እናተጎድኡ ዘይዓብዩ እንተኾይኖም፣ ቀፂላ ዝተወለደት ቆልዓ ጓለንስተይቲ እንተኾይና ክትዓቤሎም ምእንቲ ኣቲ ኢሎም ስም የውፅኡላ፡፡ ስለዚ ኣቲ ንኣብ ጥቓና ዘላ ኣንስተይቲ ፀታ ከም ስም መፀውዒ እንጥቀመሉ እዩ፡፡

ቀፃሊ ሕቶ መበቆል ወይ ሱር ቃል ኣቲ እንታይ እዩ? ምናልባት ኣቲ ሱሩ ካብ ኣቦ ኣፍሮሰሜቲከ ኮይኑ ብትግርኛ ዝተዓቀበ እዩ ምባል ምኽንያታዊ እየ፡፡ ምኽንያቱ ኣብ ትግርኛ ኣቲን ኣታን (vocatives and proper names)፣ ኣትንን ኣቱምን (polite forms of females and males respectively) ኣብ ላዕላይ ከም ዝረአናዮ ኣብ ማሕበራዊ ናብራና ብስፍሓት እንጥቅምሎም ቃላት እዮም፡፡ ስለዚ ኣቲ ኣፍሮሰሜቲክ ኮይኑ ካብ ዘበን እኒእኒ ጀሚሩ ብትርግኛ ዝተወረሰን ዝተዓቀበን ቃል እዩ፡፡ ብታሪክ ትግርኛ ጥንታዊ ዝኾኑ በኣታታት ስነ ልሳን ብምዕቃብ ዓብዪ ኣስተዋፅኦ ዝገብር ዘሎ ቋንቋ እዩ ምባል ይከኣል፡፡

4.ፐሪሁ (Parihu)
እጅፕሽያን ሄሮግሎፊክስ መናበቢ ስለ ዘይነመሮ ፐርሁ ፐረየሀወ ኢሎም እዮም ዝምዝገብዎ እንተልና ምኽናያታዊ እዩ፡፡ ብተወሳኺ እጅፕሽያን ˂ w ˃ = (u) and ˂ y ˃ = (i) . ካብዙይ እንርደኦ ‘ወ’ ዝንብብ ከም (u) ከም ዝኾነ ‘የ’ ድማ ዝንበብ ከም (i) እዩ፡፡ ስለዚ ፐረየወ = ፐሪሁ፡፡ ምሉእ ንሙሉእ መናበቢ እንትውሰኾ ፐሪሁ ይኸውን by “Devanāgari principle, according to which the unmarked vocalic value of each basic sign is “consonant + /a/” within a word or “consonant + /ɸ/” at the end (Loprieno (1995: 14)”.

እታ መጀመርያ ዘላ ድምፂ ‘ፐ’ ኮይና ብኣገላልፃ ስነ ልሳን ኢነዛሪ ከንፈር ዕጉት እያ፡፡ ካብዙይ ተበጊስና እንሓቶ ሕቶ ቋንቋ ትግራይ ድምፂ ’ፐ’ ኣለዎ ዶ ዝብል እዩ፡፡ ብርግፅ ኣብዚ ሐዚ እዋን የብሉን፡፡ ስርዓተ ድምፂ ትግርኛ ብምፍታሽ ሰረት እዚ ድምፂ ‘ፐ’ ትግራይ ኣለዎዶ? እቲ መልሲ እወ እዩ፡፡ ምኽንያቱ Kogan ከምዝበሎ፣ “b, g, and d are subject to word-final devoicing. [Hence] nab [nap] ‘to, towards’ ” 1997: 425). ካብዙይ እንርደኦ ‘በ’ን ‘ፐ’ ዘርኢ ድምፂ ኮይኖም ካብ ፍረድምፂ ‘በ’ ዝተረኸቡ እዮም፡፡ ሓደ ቋንቋ ኣብ ከይዲ ኣብ ዝገብሮ ለውጢ ናይቲ ለውጢ ምልክታት ብተኸታተሊን ብተፈላለየ መልክዑን ኣፍቲ ቋንቋ ስነ ምእላድ ሓድጊ ይገድፍ እዩ (Campbell 2004: 225)፡፡ ከምዚኦም ዝበሉ ሓድግታት ታሪክ እቲ ቋንቋ ንምፅናዕ ጠቐምቲ እዮም፡፡ ኣብ ትግራይ ሱር ቃል (በ-ረ-ሀ) ‘በሪሁ’ ዝብል ኣሎ፡፡ ስለዚ ኣብ ከይዲ ዕብየት እቲ ቋንቋ ውህደት ፍረድምፅታት ኣጋጢሙ ክኾን ከም ዝክእል ንግምት (በ + ፐ > በ)፡፡ እዙይ ዘርድአና ግዜ መሰረት ጌርና ንድሕሪት ተመሊስና እቲ ቋንቋ እንተ ፈቲሽናዮ እዞም ዘረድምፅታት ኣብ ሓደ እዋን ዓርሶም ዝኸኣሉ ዝተፈላለዩ ፍረድምፅታት ነይሩም ከምዝኾኑ ክነረጋግፅ ንኽእል፡፡ ኣብ መብዛሕተኦም ቋንቋታት ዓለም ተመራመርቲ ስነ ልሳን ዝሰርሕዎ ስራሕ እዙይ እዩ፡፡ ምኽንያቱ እዞም ምልክታት ኣሰር ሕሉፍ ታሪክ ቋንቋ ስለ ዝኾኑ ኣፍቲ ቋንቋ ውህደት ድምፅታት ከም ዝተኻየደ መረዳእታ እዮም፡፡ ውህደት ድምፅታት ኣብ ታሪካዊ ስነ ልሳን ወድዓዊ ከይዲ እዩ፡፡ ንኣብነት እዚ ዝስዕብ እንግሊዝኛ ፅሑፍ ንርአ፡፡ Trask points out that earlier Spanish had two independent phonemes /b/ and /v/, which have merged into a single phoneme /b/ in almost all modern dialects of Spanish (b + v > b) (1996: 77).

ብተወሳኺ ታሪካዊ ኣመፃፅኣ እዚ ቃል (ፐ-ረ-ሀ) እንተፅኒዕና ካብ እጅፕሽያን ከም ዘይኮነ ተመሊሱ ዝሓደረ ሕቶ እዩ፡፡ ምኽንያቱ ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን ባዕልቶም ስም ወፃኢ ዓዲ ፑንት እዩ ኢሎም ስለ ዝፀሓፍዎ፡፡ እዙይ ዘርደአና ፐሪሁ ናብ በሪሁ (ፐ > በ) ኣብ ከይዲ ከም ዝተቐየረ እዩ፡፡ እቲ ኣብ መወዳእታ ዘሎ ድምፂ ከምቲ ኣብ ላዕላይ ዝረአናዮ ˂ w ˃ = (u) እዩ፡፡ ከምዙይ ካብ ኮነ ምስ ትግርኛ ይገጥም፡፡ ኣብ ትግራይ በሪሁ ዝብል ስም ልሙድ እዩ፡፡ ብመሰረት ከይዲ ስነ ልሳን ጥንቲ ፐሪሁ ዝነበረ ሐዚ በሪሁ ስለ ዝኾነ ቋንቋ ትገራይ እዩ፡፡

መጠቓለሊ
ኣብ እዋን ሃትሸፕሱትን (1501-1479 ዓ/ዓ) ቱትሞሲስ IIIን (1479- 1447 ዓ/ዓ) ምንግስቲ መስሪቱ ኣብ ዓለም ለኻዊ ንግዲ ሰደድ እናለኣኸ ጠለብ እናተቐበለ ዘነበረ ማሕበረ ሰብ ተጋሩን ሓማሴንን ከም በርበረ ተተኺሉ ሽዑ ንሽዑ ጉዕ ዝቕንጠብ ኣይኮነን፡፡ ወይ ድማ ከም ቡቀልቲ ዓተሓሪ ተኣሊኹ ሓዲሩ ዝቦቅል ኣይኮንን፡፡ ናብ ሓደ መንግስቲ ንምምፃእ እቶም ኣብ ጥንቲ ማሕበረሰብ ዝኽየዱ ክያዶታት ናይ ባዕሎም ግዜ የድልዮም፡፡ ምኽንያቱ ኣብ ጥንቲ መንግስቲ ዝምስረት ብከይዲ ስለ ዝኾነ፡፡
ታሪክ ኣመሰራርታ ጥንታዊ መንግስቲ እንትነፅንዕ መጀመርያ መራሕቲ ሃይማኖት ናይቲ ከባቢ ኣመሓደርቲ ይኾኑ፡፡ ብምቕፃል ድልየትን ቁፅርን እቲ ማሕበረሰብ እንትውስኽ እተን ብመራሕቲ ሃይማኖት ዝምረሓ ዝነበራ እተፈላለያ ቦታታት እቲ ዝሓየለ ሃይማኖታዊ መራሒ ይጥቕልለን እሞ ናብ ችፍ ዶም ይዓብያ፡፡ ወዲ ሰብ ኣብ ዘለዎ ጠጠው ስለ ዘይብል እተን እተፈላለያ ችፍዶማት እቲ ዝሓየለ ችፍዶም ይጥቕልለን እሞ ንኡሽተይ ምንግስቲ ይምስርት፡፡ ስለዚ እቲ ብንጉስ በሪሁን በዓልቲ ገዘኡ ንግስቲ ኣቲን ብ1500 ዓ/ዓ ዝምራሕ ዝነበረ መንግስቲ ፑንት እቶም ላዕላይ ዝረአናዮም ከይድታት ሓሊፉ እዩ ከም መንግስቲ ምስ ነገስታት ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን ንግስቲ ሃትሸፕሱትን (1501-1479 ዓ/ዓ) ንጉስ ቱትሞሲስ IIIን (1479- 1447 ዓ/ዓ) ንግዳዊ ርክብ ዘካይድ ዝነበረ፡፡ ስለዚ ሳይነሳዊ ብዝኾነ መንገዲ ፀፍሒ ታሪክና ንምውሳን ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን ካብ መዓዝ ጀሚሮም እዮም ምስ መንግስቲ ፑንት ርክብ የካይዱ ነይሮም ኢልና ክንሓትትን ክንፍትሽን ወድዓዊ እዩ፡፡
ብመሰረት መረዳእታ ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን Although Egyptian expedition references were not bilateral; they can significantly help us to infer which geographical locations were referred to by which hieroglyphic texts. Pankhurst (1998: 14) pointed out that although the ancient Egyptians’ hieroglyphic references of expeditions to the land of Punt are one-sided; however, Egyptian hieroglyphic texts are invaluable in providing our earliest flash of light of the southern Red Sea area which was later to comprise the Ethiopian coast. They made known that Egyptian pharaohs of the First or the Second Dynasties (3546-3190 BC) were in possession of myrrh (myrrh, Egyptin ˂ ʕntyw ˃ is a tree and a sticky substance with a sweet smell that comes from trees and is used to make perfume, incense and frankincense), was one of the most valued commercial products obtained from Punt, possibly from present-day the eastern Tigray region.
ኣብ ላዕላይ ከም እተገለፀ ጥንቲ ግብፃውያን ካብ ቀዳማይን ካልኣን ዳይናስቲ (3546-3190 BC) ጀሚሮም ብፑንት ኣቢሎም ምስ ትግራይ ርክብ ነይርዎም፡፡ ስለዚ ፀፍሒ ታሪክና ልዕሊ 5000 /5 ሽሕ/ ዓመት አዩ እምበር 3000 ዓመት ኣይኮነን፡፡ ምኽንያት 3500 ዓ/ዓ እንትድመር 2000 ዓ/ም ይኸውን 5500 ስለ ዝኾነ፡፡
ንምንታይ ድኣ ታሪክና 3000 ዓመት ንብል እንተ ኢልና ኣቡነ ተክለሃይማኖት ካብ መንግስቲ ዛጉየ ስልጣን ናብ ሽዋ ንምውሳድ ዝተጠቐምሉ ተንኮል ሰሎሞናዊ ዝብል ሽርሒ ፖለቲካ ከም መበገሲ ታሪክ ተገይሩ ይውሰድ፡፡ ንምንታይ እንተልና ነቲ ብመስለስ ሓሶት እተፈጠረ ሶሎሞናዊ መንግስቲ ሕጋዊ ንምግባር፡፡ ንሕናውን ደንፅዩና ግድስ ብኡ ንብኡ ዓሺና ስለ ዝተረፍና ታሪክና ቆርፅና ግባ በለው እናበልና 3000 ንብል ኣለና ፡፡
ካሊእ ምስ ኣብ ቀረባና ዘለዉ ካልኦት ቢሀራት ታሪኮም ምስ ናባዕልና እንትነናፃፅር ካብ ሓደ 1000 ዓመት ዘይዛይድ ይኸውን እሞ በቲ ናትና 3000 ዓመት ንዓግብ፡፡ ስለዚ ታሪክና 3000 ዓመት እዩ እልና ንንየት፡፡
ካሊእ ሓሶት ተደጋጊሙ እንትዝረብ ሓቂ ይመስል ከም ዝበሃል EBC ኣብዚ ሐዚ እዋን ተወካሊ ኣቡነተክለሃይማኖት ዘደብረ ፅላልሽ ብምዃን ስለ ዘምብድብዶ ከም ሓቂ እናተቐበልና ንሕናውን ብኡ ንብኡ ሕቕቕ ኢልና ተሪፍና፡፡ ብካሊእ ኣገላልፃ ንሕናውን ተመራመርቲ ዘይኮንናስ ዝተብሃለ ደገምቲ ማለት ግልያ እማኑ ስለ ዝኾንና ኮጠጥ ኢልና ንደጋግሞ ኣለና፡፡
ብመሰረት ታሪካዊ ስነ ልሳን እንትረኣ ፕሮፌሰር ግሮበር ሃድሰን ከም ዝገለፆ ነዚ ዝስዕብ ስእሊ ዝምድና ቋንቋታት ኣፍሮ ሰሜቲክ ብመንፅር ግዜ ዝገልፅ ንርአ፡፡
ንኡስ ጉጅለ ደቡብ ኢትዮፒክ ድማ ንቋንቋታት ሓምሓርኛ፡ ኣርጎባ፡ ኣደሬ፡ ስልጢ፣ ወለኔን ካብ ዓሰርተ ክልተ ዘይውሕዱ ብጥማር ቋንቋታት ጉራጌ ዝበሃሉ ዝሓቐፈ እዩ፡፡ እዙይ ዘርድአና ኣምሓርኛ ካብ ግእዝ ዝተፈጠረ እዩ ዝብሉ ሰባት መረዳእተኦም ሰብ ሞያ ስነ ልሳን ዝጥቀሙሉ ኣይኮነን ማለት እዩ፡፡ ምኽንያቱ በተመራመርቲ ስነ ልሳን ቋንቋ ኣምሓርኛ ኣይኮነንዶ ወዲ ግእዝ ክኾንስ ዘመዱ እዩ እምበር ሓዉ እኳ ኣይኮነን፡፡ ብመሰረት ስልቲ ታሪካውን ንፅፅራውን ስነ ልሳን መደብ ኣምሓርኛ ደቡብ ኢትዮፒክ እንትኸውን ትግራይ ግን ሰሜን ኢትዮፒክን እዩ ሄትስሮን (1972: 22)፡፡
ኣብ መወዳእታ ኣብ ምድረ ፑንት ተጋሩ ብዝብል ስም ዝፅዋዕ ማሕበረሰብ ብዜካ ትግራይ ተዛረብቲ ብታሪክ ዝፍለጥ ስለ ዘየለ እዞም ኣብ እጅፕሽያን ሄሮገሎፊክስ ዝተረኸቡ በኣታታት ስነ ልሳን ጥሙር ግእዝ ወይ ትግራይ ከም ኣብ ማንም ስነ ልሳናዊ ዓለም ዝግበር ርክብ ቋንቋታት ዕቱብ መራዳእታታት እዮም፡፡ እቲ ገዛኢ ኩነት ንምህላው ቋንቋ ነቲ ቋንቋ ዝጥቀም ማሕበረሰብ ምህላው እዩ፡፡ ስለዚ ኣብዚ መፅናዕቲ ክልቲኦም ገዛእቲ ኩነታት ተፈጥራዊ ቦቶኦም ሓልዮም ብታሪክ ተገጣጢሞም ኣለዉ፡፡ ከምዚኦም ዝበሉ ጥንታዊ ፅሑፋት ጥንታዊ ታሪክ ማሕበረሰባት ንምፅናዕ መዳርግቲ ዘይብሎም እንኮ መረዳእታ ስለ ዝኾኑ ኣብ ታሪክ ዛለዓለ ቦታ ኣለዎም፡፡ ስለዚ ፀፍሒ ታሪክና ልዕሊ 5000 /5 ሽሕ/ ማለት 5500 እምበር 3000 ኣይኮነን፡፡

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