Ethiopian News, Current Affairs and Opinion Forum
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Post by Zmeselo » 01 May 2019, 06:20

The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe – review

David Kertzer's nuanced book investigates an unholy alliance between fascism and the Catholic church

Lucy Hughes-Hallett ... zer-review

Thu 6 Mar 2014

In 1938, Pope Pius XI addressed a group of visitors to the Vatican. There were some people, he said, who argued that the state should be all-powerful – "totalitarian". Such an idea, he went on, was absurd, not because individual liberty was too precious to be surrendered, but because
if there is a totalitarian regime – in fact and by right – it is the regime of the church, because man belongs totally to the church.
As David Kertzer demonstrates repeatedly in this nuanced book, to be critical of fascism in Italy in the 30s was not necessarily to be liberal or a lover of democracy. And to be antisemitic was not to be unchristian. The Pope told Mussolini that the church had long seen the need to
rein in the children of Israel
and to take
protective measures against their evil-doing.
The Vatican and the fascist regime had many differences, but this they had in common.

Kertzer announces that the Catholic church is generally portrayed as the courageous opponent of fascism, but this is an exaggeration. There is a counter-tradition, John Cornwell's fine book, Hitler's Pope, on Pius XII (who succeeded Pius XI in 1939) exposed the Vatican's culpable passivity in the face of the wartime persecution of Italian Jews. But Kertzer describes something more fundamental than a church leader's strategic decision to protect his own flock rather than to speak up in defence of others. His argument, presented not as polemic but as gripping storytelling, is that much of fascist ideology was inspired by Catholic tradition – the authoritarianism, the intolerance of opposition and the profound suspicion of the Jews.

Pius XI – formerly Achille Ratti, librarian, mountain-climber and admirer of Mark Twain – was elected Pope in February 1922, eight months before Mussolini bullied his way to the Italian premiership. For 17 years the two men held sway over their separate spheres in Rome. In all that time they met only once, but they communicated ceaselessly by means of ambassadors and nuncios, through the press (each had his tame organ) and via less publicly accountable go-betweens. From the copious records of their exchanges Kertzer has uncovered a fascinating tale of two irascible – and often irrational – potentates, and gives us an account of some murky intellectual finagling, and an often startling investigation of the exercise of power.

The accession of Mussolini, known in his youth as mangiaprete – priest-eater – didn't bode well for the papacy. The fascist squads had been beating up clerics and terrorising Catholic youth clubs. But Mussolini saw that he could use the church to legitimise his power, so he set about wooing the clergy. He had his wife and children baptised. He gave money for the restoration of churches. After two generations of secularism, there were once again to be crucifixes in Italy's courts and classrooms. Warily, slowly, the Pope became persuaded that with Mussolini's help Italy might become, once more, a "confessional state".

Only gradually did it become clear how much the church might lose in the process. Pius fretted over inadequately dressed women – backless ballgowns and the skimpy outfits of female gymnasts were particularly worrisome. Mussolini played along, solemnly declaring that, in future, girls' gym lessons would be designed only to make them fit mothers of fascist sons. He was accommodating in aiding the Pope's war on heresy – banning Protestant books and journals on demand. But Mussolini was creating a heresy of his own. Schoolchildren were required to pray to him:
I humbly offer my life to you, o Duce.
In January 1938, he summoned more than 2,000 priests, including 60 bishops, to participate in a celebration of his agricultural policy. Neither the Pope nor his secretary of state were happy, but they feared offending the dictator. And so the priests marched in procession through Rome. They laid wreaths, not at a Christian shrine, but on a monument to fascist heroes. They saluted Mussolini as he stood on his balcony and attended a ceremony where they were required to cheer his entrance, to pray for blessings upon him and roar out "O Duce! Duce! Duce!" That the fascists (beginning with their precursor, Gabriele d'Annunzio ... eview.html) had appropriated ecclesiastical rituals and liturgies could perhaps be taken as a compliment to the church, but to recruit its priests for the worship of a secular ruler was to humiliate God's vicar on earth. Mussolini was [ deleted ]-a-hoop. It was easy to manipulate the church, he told his new allies in Nazi Germany. With a few tax concessions, and free railway tickets for the clergy, he boasted, he had got the Vatican so snugly in his pocket it had even declared his genocidal invasion of Abyssinia "a holy war".

When it comes to the "Jewish question", Kertzer demonstrates that the Pope's failure to protest effectively against the fascist racial laws arose not simply from weakness, but because antisemitism pervaded his church. Mussolini scored a painful hit when he assured Pius that he would do nothing to Italy's Jews that had not already been done under papal rule. Roberto Farinacci, most brutal of the fascist leaders, came close to the truth when he announced:
It is impossible for the Catholic fascist to renounce that antisemitic conscience which the church had formed through the millennia.
And Catholic antisemitism was thriving. Among Pius's most valued advisers were several who – as Kertzer amply demonstrates – saw themselves as battling against a diabolical alliance of communists, Protestants, freemasons and Jews.

Avoiding overt partisanship, Kertzer coolly lays out the evidence; he describes his large and various cast of characters, and follows their machinations. We meet the genial Cardinal Gasparri who, narrowly missing the papacy himself, became Pius's secretary of state, handling the negotiations that led in 1929 to the Lateran Accords between the Vatican and the regime. Gasparri, a peasant's son who had risen far, considered Mussolini absurdly ignorant and uncouth; Mussolini thought him "very shrewd". We meet the Jesuit father, Tacchi Venturi, Pius's unofficial emissary, a firm believer in conspiracy theories, who claimed to have been nearly killed by an antifascist hitman (the story doesn't stand up). We meet Monsignor Caccia, Pius's master of ceremonies, who was known to the police and to Mussolini's spies for luring boys to his rooms in the Vatican for sex, rewarding them with contraband cigarettes. And we meet the motley crew familiar from histories of fascism: the doltish Starace, Mussolini's "bulldog"; Ciano, plump and boyish and, in the opinion of the American ambassador, devoid of "standards morally or politically"; and Clara Petacci, the girl with whom Mussolini spent hours of every day on the beach. Some of this is familiar territory, but what is new, and riveting, is how fascists and churchmen alike were forced into intellectual contortions as they struggled to justify the new laws. "Racism" was good. "Exaggerated racism" was bad. "Antisemitism" was good, as long as it was Italian. "German antisemitism" was another thing entirely.

Eventually Pius XI drew back from this casuistry. Kertzer describes the old pope on his deathbed, praying for just a few more days so that he could deliver a speech with the message that "all the nations, all the races" (Jews included) could be united by faith. He dies. Cardinal Pacelli – suave, emollient and devious, where Pius XI was a table-thumper who had no qualms about blurting out uncomfortable truths – clears his desk, suppresses his notes and persuades the Vatican's printer, who has the speech's text ready for distribution, to destroy it so that "not a comma" remains. Eighteen days later Pacelli becomes Pope Pius XII. It is a striking ending for a book whose narrative strength is as impressive as its moral subtlety.

Lucy Hughes-Hallett's The Pike: Gabriele d'Annunzio ... 0007213962 has won the Samuel Johnson prize for non-fiction, the Costa biography award and the Duff Cooper prize.

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Post by Zmeselo » 01 May 2019, 06:38

The signing of the Reichskonkordat on July 20, 1933 in Rome. (From left to right: German prelate Ludwig Kaas, German Vice-Chancellor Franz von Papen, Secretary of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs Giuseppe Pizzardo, Cardinal Secretary of State Eugenio Pacelli, Alfredo Ottaviani, and member of Reichsministerium des Inneren [Home Office] Rudolf [deleted]) Bundesarchiv, Wikimedia Commons

This Day in Jewish History 1933: The Vatican and Nazi Germany Sign an Agreement

The concordat effectively removed Vatican opposition to the Nazis, in exchange for restored control over religious affairs.

David B. Green ... -1.5412757


On July 20, 1933, the Vatican and Germany signed an agreement that set the parameters of the relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and the newly formed Nazi government.

The Reichskonkordat, signed by Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, the Vatican secretary of state, and German Vice Chancellor Franz von Papen, made no mention of the Jews. Nor did it constitute any sort of papal green light for any plans of genocide Hitler may have had at the time.

What it did was bring to an end something of a cold war in relations between the Church and the German state, which had been going on since the time of Bismarck. To Hitler’s dictatorship, it offered much desired recognition from a foreign state, and hence legitimacy. For the Church, it seemed to promise that it could carry out its spiritual mission in Germany without government harassment.

Otto von Bismarck, the Prussian chancellor between 1871 and 1890, had instituted what he called a Kulturkampf (culture struggle) with the Catholic Church, in an effort to curb the pope’s influence over German politics, and to weaken Catholic institutions in a country one-third of whose citizens belonged to the Church. In particular, he was vexed by the establishment of the German Center Party, which was intended to represent the country’s Catholics.

Bismarck’s campaign largely backfired: He did not succeed in enlisting other European states in taking steps against the Church, and within Germany, the Center Party was only strengthened by the attempts to sideline it. By 1872, he had declared a unilateral cease-fire in his efforts.

Mutual animosity

In early 1930, the Vatican named Cardinal Pacelli as secretary of state – its chief diplomat – under Pope Pius XI. One of his assignments was to pursue treaties between the Church and as many states as possible.

In 1924 and 1929 Pacelli, who, following the death of Pius XI in February 1939, would himself become Pope Pius XII, had negotiated concordats with the German states of Prussia and Bavaria , and in 1929, he also reached two treaties with Italy that guaranteed sovereignty to the Vatican in return for recognition of the Kingdom of Italy. In 1932, after his appointment as secretary of state, he also achieved accord with the German state of Baden.

Caricature "Between Berlin and Rome" from Kladderadatsch, 16 May 1875. The caption reads: (Pope:) "The last move was certainly very unpleasant for me; but that doesn't yet mean the game is lost. I have one more very fine move up my sleeve!" (Bismarck:) "It will also be the last, and then you are mated in a few moves - at least for Germany." Wikimedia Commons

Following Hitler's rise in January 1933, it was in the interests of both him and the Church to quickly negotiate a modus vivendi. Their antipathy was mutual: In fact, German Catholics were prohibited from joining the Nazi Party, and priests refused to give communion to people who were wearing a swastika.

Pacelli wanted to end the growing wave of harassment of Catholic clergy under the new regime, and also, he shared Hitler’s strong antipathy to Communism. He was more than willing to end the involvement of German churchmen in local political affairs if in return, the government would agree yield to the centralized control of Rome in Church affairs in Germany.

Even before formal talks got under way, in April 1933, the ban on Catholics joining the Nazi party had been lifted, and on July 5, the Center Party, having been made to understand that the Holy See did not have a stake in its continued existence, dissolved itself, just as all other German parties apart from the National Socialists had done – if they hadn’t already been banned.

As journalist and scholar John Cornwell noted, in his book “Hitler’s Pope,” the discussions
were conducted exclusively by Pacelli on behalf of the Pope over the heads of the faithful, the clergy and the German bishops.
As James Carroll wrote in “Constantine’s Sword,” his 2001 study of the Church’s relationship with the Jews,
The Reichskonkordat effectively removed the German Catholic Church from any continued role of opposition to Hitler. More than that, as Hitler told his cabinet on July 14, it established a context that would be ‘especially significant in the urgent struggle against international Jewry.’
The Reichskonkordat was signed on July 20, and was ratified by the Vatican on September 10, 1933. The Church began to protest German violations of the treaty almost immediately, to no avail.

The concordat remains in effect to this day.

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Post by Zmeselo » 01 May 2019, 06:41

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Re: ካቶሊካውያን ጳጳሳት ኤርትራ ንሃገራዊ ዕርቂ-ሰላም ዝጽውዕ ሃዋርያዊ መልእኽቲ ዘርጊሖም

Post by Awash » 01 May 2019, 07:19

Zombies are everywhere. Parasites mean you could be one too.

In the wild, insects, worms, virus, and fungi turn animals into hyper-specialized zombies. Which ones can take over humans? ... book-talk/

...The zombie of pop culture very much mimics the person infected with a real rabies virus. But it gets more complicated. In raccoons or other mammals that the virus typically infects to complete its life cycle, it not only produces that foaming of the mouth, which is the virus presenting itself in the saliva. It also makes those animals more aggressive, which in and of itself is a behavioral manipulation. It transmits by getting the animal to bite another animal, therefore getting into another body.

But it goes beyond that. It makes the animal not only avoid [Holy] water but very much fear water, which is probably a manipulation to keep the animal from washing the virus out of its mouth. You can find videos of humans doing the same. They’ll recoil as a nurse presents them water. Somehow the virus is manipulating our behavior to recoil at the sight of water. It’s a terrible sickness but it did give us the zombie that we know today...

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Re: ካቶሊካውያን ጳጳሳት ኤርትራ ንሃገራዊ ዕርቂ-ሰላም ዝጽውዕ ሃዋርያዊ መልእኽቲ ዘርጊሖም

Post by Awash » 01 May 2019, 07:53

Sweden: Pfdj stronghold no more. Inoculated from pfdj rabies virus. :lol: :mrgreen: ... ments_list.[10157212253708839%252C10157212253863839%252C10157212253988839%252C10157212254148839%252C10157212254228839]%253Astory_location.5%253Astory_attachment_style.album%253Aview_time.1556647562%26__tn__%3DEH-R%26cached_data%3Dfalse%26ftid%3D&mdp=1&mdf=1
Last edited by Awash on 01 May 2019, 08:08, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: ካቶሊካውያን ጳጳሳት ኤርትራ ንሃገራዊ ዕርቂ-ሰላም ዝጽውዕ ሃዋርያዊ መልእኽቲ ዘርጊሖም

Post by Zmeselo » 01 May 2019, 08:08


I don't blame you, though.

How can you know what the PFDJ stronghold, consists of.

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Re: ካቶሊካውያን ጳጳሳት ኤርትራ ንሃገራዊ ዕርቂ-ሰላም ዝጽውዕ ሃዋርያዊ መልእኽቲ ዘርጊሖም

Post by Temt » 01 May 2019, 09:22

Oh 'Religion' - The question is how many religion does it take to connect with God? Why in the world does one need imported religion when he/she has one? It is a joke. Listen to the wisdom filled gentleman telling it as it is and not as what one would like us to believe!

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Post by Awash » 01 May 2019, 11:12

እሱራት ክፍትሑ፣ ዶብ ክሕንጸጽ፣ ሃገራዊ ዕርቂ ክካየድ ዝጽውዕ መልእኽቲ ካቶሊካዊት ቤተክርስትያን ኤርትራ

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Re: ካቶሊካውያን ጳጳሳት ኤርትራ ንሃገራዊ ዕርቂ-ሰላም ዝጽውዕ ሃዋርያዊ መልእኽቲ ዘርጊሖም

Post by Meleket » 02 May 2019, 05:14

ሓንቲ ‘ተሬዛ በኣልቲ ኣቪላ’ ዝተባህለት ካቶሊካዊት እማሆይ ከምዙይ ቢላ ነበረት ሓቃ’ዶ ትኸዉን፧
“Christ has no body now but yours. No hands, no feet on earth but yours. Yours are the eyes through which he looks compassion on this world. Yours are the feet with which he walks to do good. Yours are the hands through which he blesses all the world. Yours are the hands, yours are the feet, yours are the eyes, you are his body. Christ has no body now on earth but yours.
ብዛዕባ imported religions “...መጤ ሃይማኖቶች...” ወይ ካብ ደገ ዝመጽአ ሃይማኖታት (ብጃልባ ኺኸዉን ይኽእል ኢዩ :lol: ) ኪዝረብ እንከሎ ድማ ነዙይ ሓሳብ ኣብ ገለ ነቢብና ከምዝነበርና ይዝከረና! :lol:
ብሰንክ’ዚ ምውራስ’ዚ ሓደ እዋን ደርጊ ብናይ ወጻኢ ሚድያ ስለ ዝተወቕሱ፣ ናይ ደርጊ ናይ ወጻኢ ጕዳያት ሚንስትር ዝነበሩ፡ዶክተር ፈለቀ ገድለጊዮርጊስ ንናይ ወጻኢ ሃገራት ዲፕሎማት ጸዊዖም መግለጺ እንኪህቡሉ፣ደጋጊሞም “...መጤ ሃይማኖቶች...”(=ዝመጽአ ሃይማኖታት) ኪብሉ ምስ ተዛረቡ፣ነዚ ግጉይ ኣበሃህላ ንምእራም ሓደ ካብ ወገን ወለጋ ዝኾኑ ኢትዮጵያዊ፡ ዕድመ ዝጸገቡ ትምህርቲ ዝደለቡ ዚመስሉ ፕሮተስታንት ተንሢኦም፣ “...መን ወይ ኣየናይ ደኣ እዩ “መጤ” ዝመጽአ ዘይኮነ...? ተዋህዶ ሃይማኖት “መጤ”፣ ካቶሊክ“መጤ”፣ ፕሮተስታንት “መጤ”፣ ሶሺያሊዝም /ኮሚዩኒዝም... “መጤ”” ኢሎም ኮፍ በሉ፣ ሽዑ ወዮም ሚንስትር “...ሓሳዊ! ሃይማኖት ተዋህዶ...ቅድሚ ልደት ክርስቶስ ዝነበረት እያ...” :mrgreen: ከምዝበሉ’ሞ እቶም ብኣስተርጓሚ ዚከታተሉ ዝነበሩ ዲፕሎማት ብዙሕ ከምዝተገረሙ ይንገር። ምስ’ቲ ናይ ሠለስተ ሺሕ ዓመት ናጽነት ተባሂሉ ዚድረፍ ማዕረ ማዕረኡ ከኣ፣ ቅድሚ ክርስቶስሲ ክርስትና የኣዪ ከምዝነበረ ጸጸኒሑ ዚዕለል እዩ። እቲ ክርስትና ብ330 ዓ.ም.ፈ. ካብ እስክንድርያ ከምዝመጽአ ተረሲዑ ማለት እዩ። :lol:

በዚ ዀነ በቲ ግን ከምዚ ክቡር ሓዉና ዲያቆን ዳንኤል ክብረት ዝገለጾ “ካህናተ ደብተራ” ካብ ምዃን ይሰዉረና!

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Re: ካቶሊካውያን ጳጳሳት ኤርትራ ንሃገራዊ ዕርቂ-ሰላም ዝጽውዕ ሃዋርያዊ መልእኽቲ ዘርጊሖም

Post by kerenite » 03 May 2019, 13:57

kerenite wrote:
27 Apr 2019, 13:56
Abe Abraham wrote:
26 Apr 2019, 22:26
ኣብ ቈጽሪ ዝኣትዉ ኣይኮኑን ። ቈንጣሮ እዮም ዝኾኑ ። ኣብ ዘየእትዎም ነገር እዮም ዝኣትዉ ዘለዉ ። :lol: :lol:
The extraordinär fanatic pastor abraham,

I mistakenly thought that you only detest muslims but I am surprised now to find out that you destest those who adhere to christendom namely catholics as well too. :roll:

Are you a jeberti? :wink: :mrgreen: :lol: :lol: :lol:

Aytisaanu antum ilfi iray mray teref meref alula ketesHuQuna metan. :lol: :lol:
Fanatic Qeshi abraham,

You scribbled that Eritrea was liberated by TEWAHDO chrisitians only. Lol

My below brief post ain't addressed to you solely but to your ilks such as the zemesolos and Co. who condone your way of thinking and who remained tight-lipped. (no where I read the word..AGAB when you wrote what you wrote). Am I surprised or do I care? Of course not. Lol


P.S. some months ago, we did have a get together party of family members gatheing here in my small house. Amongst other pertinent current issues which we discussed, we raised the issue about our immediate and distant family members who had fallen fighting for eritrea's independence since the year 1961.

Man! We counted 24 heroes (6 of them had fallen prior to the year 1965 long before issu joined ELF in 1966) !!! Proof, their families received certificates and compensations from higdef. Hey! They all belonged to the tigrayit speaking eritreans aka tgre ethnic group. In other words not tewahdo christians.

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Re: ካቶሊካውያን ጳጳሳት ኤርትራ ንሃገራዊ ዕርቂ-ሰላም ዝጽውዕ ሃዋርያዊ መልእኽቲ ዘርጊሖም

Post by Meleket » 13 May 2019, 04:58

መንእሰይ ወለዶ ዓለምና ታሪኽ ኬንብብ ከሎ ካብ ዝተፈላለዩ ምንጭታት ንዝተጸሐፉ ይነብብ’ሞ ነቲ ኩነታት ባዕሉ ይመምዮ እምበር ፈላጣት ኢና፣ ንፈልጠልካ ኢና፣ ካባና ንላዕሊ ብዛዕባኻ ዝፈልጠልካ የሎን ዝብሉ ሰባትን ‘ምሁራት’ ሰብ ፍሉይ ረብሓን ዝቕርቡሉ ጥራሕ ሱቕ ኢሉ አይጎስሞን’ዩ። ንኣብነት ብዛዕባ እቲ ክፉእ ዘመን ኵናት ግዜ ናዚን ፋሽስትን ምጽናት አይሁድን ኬንብብ ከሎ ካቶሊክ ቤተክርስትያን ካህናታን ደናግላን እንታይ ግደ ኔሩዋም ኪፈልጥን ሚዛናዊ ሓበሬታ ኪሰንቅን ነዚኤንን ከምዚኤንን ዝኣመሰሉ ጽሑፋት’ዉን ይነብብ፡ ነቢቡ ድማ የዀማስዐን በቲ ናይቲ ፍጻሜ ዝተገብረሉ እዋን መዐቐኒ ድማ ይመዝነን ከምዡ እናገበረ’ዩ ንታሪኽ ዚፈትል እምበር ሓደ ጎድናዊ ጽሑፋት ጥራሕ እሞ ድማ ንምጽላም ሽም ቤተክርስትያን ኮነ ንምጽላም ዝኾነ ይኹን አካል ዚጋዋሕ ብሮባጋንዳታት ጥራይ መመሪጩ አይነብብን፣ ንኩሉ ይነብብ ይመሚ ድማ ከምኡ ገቢሩ ንታሪኽ ኪመሚን ቕኑዕ ጎደና ከሌሊን ተጌሩ ዝተመልመለ መኣስ ውሑድ ኾይኑ! ንቐደም በሉ፦ ... xii-113235 ... _Holocaust

Wikipedia ኣብቲ ብዙሕ ምንጭታት ዚጠቀሰሉ ጽሑፉ Post-war praise by Jewish leaders ኣብ ትሕቲ ዚብል ኣርእስቲ ከምዙይ ይብል
Pinchas Lapide, a Jewish theologian and Israeli diplomat to Milan in the 1960s, wrote in Three Popes and the Jews that Catholics were "instrumental in saving at least 700,000 but probably as many as 860,000 Jews from certain death at Nazi hands".[132] Some historians have questioned this oft-cited number,[133] which Lapide reached by "deducting all reasonable claims of rescue" by non-Catholics from the number of Jews he claims succeeded in escaping to the free world from Nazi-controlled areas during the Holocaust.[134]
According to Rabbi David Dalin, in the aftermath of the war, Jewish leaders who hailed Pius XII a righteous gentile for his work in saving thousands of Jews included the scientist Albert Einstein, the Israeli Prime Ministers Golda Meir and Moshe Sharett, and the Chief Rabbi Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog.[135]
The Chief Rabbi of Rome, Israel Zolli, took refuge in the Vatican following the Nazi occupation of Rome in 1943. After the war he converted to Catholicism and took the name "Eugenio" in honour of Pope Pius XII.
On 21 September 1945, the general secretary of the World Jewish Council, Dr. Leon Kubowitzky, presented an amount of money to the pope, "in recognition of the work of the Holy See in rescuing Jews from Fascist and Nazi persecutions".[136] After the war, in the autumn of 1945, Harry Greenstein from Baltimore, a close friend of Chief Rabbi Herzog of Jerusalem, told Pius how grateful Jews were for all he had done for them. The pope replied, "My only regret is not to have been able to save a greater number of Jews."[137]
Catholic scholar Kevin Madigan interprets such praise from prominent Jewish leaders, including Golda Meir, as less than sincere; an attempt to secure Vatican recognition of the State of Israel.
[138] ... -holocaust ... es-at-110/

ካብ ኣርእስትና ተኣሊና’ዶ፧ ኵሉ ሓደ፡ ዘይ ንምምህሃርን ንምምሕሓርን ንምምምዓድ’ዩ ኩሉ ዚጸሓፍ።

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Re: ካቶሊካውያን ጳጳሳት ኤርትራ ንሃገራዊ ዕርቂ-ሰላም ዝጽውዕ ሃዋርያዊ መልእኽቲ ዘርጊሖም

Post by Zmeselo » 13 May 2019, 07:51

The Nazis Baer, Mengele, Kramer and Höss at Auschwitz

Red Cross and Vatican helped thousands of Nazis to escape

Research shows how travel documents ended up in hands of the likes of Adolf Eichmann, Josef Mengele and Klaus Barbie in the postwar chaos.

Dalya Alberge ... -documents

Wed 25 May 2011

The Red Cross and the Vatican both helped thousands of Nazi war criminals and collaborators to escape after the second world war, according to a book that pulls together evidence from unpublished documents.

The Red Cross has previously acknowledged ... 310507.htm that its efforts to help refugees were used by Nazis because administrators were overwhelmed, but the research suggests the numbers were much higher than thought.

Gerald Steinacher, a research fellow at Harvard University, was given access to thousands of internal documents in the archives of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). The documents include Red Cross travel documents issued mistakenly to Nazis in the postwar chaos.

They throw light on how and why mass murderers such as Adolf Eichmann, Josef Mengele and Klaus Barbie and thousands of others evaded capture by the allies.

By comparing lists of wanted war criminals to travel documents, Steinacher says Britain and Canada alone inadvertently took in around 8,000 former Waffen-SS members in 1947, many on the basis of valid documents issued mistakenly.

The documents – which are discussed in Steinacher's book Nazis on the Run: How Hitler's henchmen fled justice – offer a significant insight into Vatican thinking, particularly, because its own archives beyond 1939 are still closed. The Vatican has consistently refused to comment.

Steinacher believes the Vatican's help was based on a hoped-for revival of European Christianity and dread of the Soviet Union. But through the Vatican Refugee Commission, war criminals were knowingly provided with false identities.

The Red Cross, overwhelmed by millions of refugees, relied substantially on Vatican references and the often cursory Allied military checks in issuing travel papers, known as 10.100s.

It believed it was primarily helping innocent refugees although correspondence between Red Cross delegations in Genoa, Rome and Geneva shows it was aware Nazis were getting through.
Although the ICRC has publicly apologised, its action went well beyond helping a few people,
said Steinacher.

Steinacher says the documents indicate that the Red Cross, mostly in Rome or Genoa, issued at least 120,000 of the 10.100s, and that 90% of ex-Nazis fled via Italy, mostly to Spain, and North and South America – notably Argentina.

Former SS members often mixed with genuine refugees and presented themselves as stateless ethnic Germans to gain transit papers. Jews trying to get to Palestine via Italy were sometimes smuggled over the border with escaping Nazis.

Steinacher says that individual Red Cross delegations issued war criminals with 10.100s
out of sympathy for individuals … political attitude, or simply because they were overburdened.
Stolen documents were also used to whisk Nazis to safety. He said:
They were really in a dilemma. It was difficult. It wanted to get rid of the job. Nobody wanted to do it.
The Red Cross refused to comment directly on Steinacher's findings but the organisation says on its website:
The ICRC has previously deplored the fact that Eichmann and other Nazi criminals misused its travel documents to cover their tracks.


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Re: ካቶሊካውያን ጳጳሳት ኤርትራ ንሃገራዊ ዕርቂ-ሰላም ዝጽውዕ ሃዋርያዊ መልእኽቲ ዘርጊሖም

Post by Meleket » 13 May 2019, 08:54

In 2005, Jesuit historian Vincent Lapomarda wrote:

Recent works by José M. Sánchez, Pius XII and the Holocaust (2001) and Justus George Lawler's Popes and Politics (2002) show how really outrageous are the positions of many of those who have attacked Pope Pius XII. To condemn Pius for not seizing every opportunity to protest the crimes against the Jews overlooks the fact that he could not even save his own priests. What is amazing is that the Catholic Church under the Pope's leadership did far more to help Jews than any other international agency or person ...

— Vincent A. Lapomarda, The Jesuits and the Third Reich[160] ... _Holocaust

ንምውርዛይ ቦታ የሎን!!! :mrgreen:

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Re: ካቶሊካውያን ጳጳሳት ኤርትራ ንሃገራዊ ዕርቂ-ሰላም ዝጽውዕ ሃዋርያዊ መልእኽቲ ዘርጊሖም

Post by Meleket » 13 May 2019, 11:51

ሐቂ ኣበይ ኣሎኺ ክደልየኺ! ዘይሓንኹ ባእታታት ንካቶሊካዊያን ካህናት ኣብ ግዜ ናዚይ ምስ ናዚ ሰሚሮም ኔሮም ወይ ይደናገጹ ነቢሮም ኢሎም ስሞም የጸልምዎም፣ ብተጻይ እዙይ፡ እቱይ ሓቂ ንአይሁድ ካብ ቅዝፈት ናዚ ንምድሓን ኣብ ውሻጠኦም ይሓብኡ ምንባሮም ኢዩ ዚፍለጥ። በዙይ ድማ ከምዙይ ዚበለ ጽሑፍ ንነብብ ኣሎና ሚዛን ንምህላዉ’ኡ!። ኺኹላዕ ዛለዎ ታሪኽ’ዩ ኣብዚ እኒሄኩም!!!

“ጉሰምዎ እምበር ናበይ ድሕር ድሕሬ” ዲዩ ዝበለ በረኸት፣ ግርም ሓቆም እንከ ዮም ገሊኦም “ጻዕዳ ከጸልሙ ዝነብሑ ከም ከልቢ” ዝበሉ!!! ነዚኦም’ዶ ጸለመ ምተገብኣ!!! ... nst-hitler
The Jesuits and the Third Reich

At the beginning of this valuable study, Vincent A. Lapomarda, who is Curator of the Hiatt Collection of Holocaust Materials at Holy Cross College, allows that Catholics have not recounted their share of the World War II legacy very well, to our common detriment.

A part of that legacy is the story of Hitler’s animus toward and campaign against the Jesuits. In Nazi circles they were often associated with Jews and other Untermenschen. Their schools and properties were confiscated or destroyed, thousands were imprisoned or exiled, and 259 were killed, 152 of these in Nazi concentration camps. The campaign against the Jesuits was, of course, a small part of the Nazi persecution of the Church and of Christianity in general and it is immensely helpful to have at hand the kind of documentation Lapomarda’s work supplies. He relies heavily on the recently published but as yet untranslated materials of Ludwig Volk, Ulrich Von Hehl, and Dieter Albrecht of the Kommission fur Zeitgeschichteof the Catholic Academy in Bavaria under the inspired leadership of Dr. Konrad Repgen.

As partial explanation for the unbalanced impression many have of “Catholic indifference and inaction,” Lapomarda refers to the postwar Stalinist policy in Eastern Bloc countries. The Communist governments that took over these countries after 1945 consistently spread lies to the effect that Catholic authorities had collaborated with the Nazis during wartime occupations. When church leaders sought to correct such false accusations by bringing evidence before the people, they were usually thrown into prison or hunted down as traitors to their country. The result, says Lapomarda, “has been a silence so tight that the truth about much of the heroic efforts of various individuals in the Nazi era has been neglected.” Lapomarda’s work is one of the first to breach that silence, especially with regard to the situations in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, the Baltic states, Yugoslavia, and Russia. He outlines in separate chapters the persecution of the Jesuits and their role in inspiring and sustaining Church resistance in Germany and throughout the different nations of occupied Europe.

In Germany, keen Jesuit intellectuals like Jakob Notges and Anton Koch led the assault on Alfred Rosenberg’s Myth of the Twentieth Century. Jesuit editors of the journal Stimmen der Zeit like Erich Przywara, Gustav Grundlach, and Max Pribilla spearheaded a formidable and consistent intellectual resistance to Nazi propaganda until, after frequent raids, it, along with the more popular Jesuit publications, was shut down by the Gestapo. They continued to assist the Bishops and advise the Vatican until forced into exile. Perhaps nothing infuriated the Nazis more than the publication of Pius XI’s encyclical Mit brennender sorge (March 1937) with its stern condemnations of totalitarianism and pseudo-scientific racism. The drafting of this courageous document, though primarily in the hands of Cardinal Pacelli, owed much to Jesuit advisors.

In 1935, in the midst of a crackdown on Jesuit schools, the Gestapo sent secret instructions to local police on how to handle the Jesuits. Many like Fr. Oswald von Neil Bruening, who was largely responsible for drafting Pius XI’s encyclical on the rights of labor, Quadragesimo Anno,were caught up in the notorious morality and currency trials of 1936-39. At least ninety-three Jesuits were interrogated and variously harassed. Many were exiled, and the order was forbidden to accept new candidates. Three Jesuits were members of the Kreisau Circle headed by Count Helmuth von Moltke. The Jesuit provincial superior, Fr. Anton Rosch, with the full support of the order’s superior general in Rome, was particularly courageous in his will to resist Nazi terror. Held in chains and beaten repeatedly, he was scheduled for execution when he was rescued at war’s end by Russian troops.

In France, much underground resistance centered around the Jesuits and their journals Etudes and Temoinage Chretien. Yves de Montcheuil, editor ofEtudes and a professor of theology at the Institute Catholique in Paris, was barbarously shot along with two Jewish doctors while caring for wounded soldiers in the hospital of St. Martin. His successor, Gaston Fessard, an early supporter of Charles de Gaulle and a good friend of the well-known Jesuit Teilhard de Chardin, continued his predecessor’s policy of courageous resistance to Vichy collaboration with Nazi policy and especially its anti-Semitism.

In Lyons, Fathers Pierre Chaillet and Henri de Lubac, both professors of theology at the University Catholique de Lyons, edited and wrote forTemoinage Chretien, which in 1942 had a circulation of 50,000. They repeatedly insisted that the persecution of Jews was inseparably an attack on Christianity and in any case intolerable. With their assistance. Cardinals Saliegeof Toulouse and Gerlier of Lyons denounced the regime’s anti-Semitic laws in pastoral letters and called upon the people to resist. Later, they helped inspire a joint protest written by Cardinal Suhard of Paris and signed by all the bishops of France in July of 1942, which stated, “We are profoundly shocked by the mass arrests and the inhumane treatment meted out to Jews. In the name of humanity and of Christian principle, we resolutely condemn this violation of the inalienable rights of man.”

Subsequently, in a pastoral letter, the primate of France instructed French Catholics to refuse to surrender Jews to the authorities and to hide or shelter them when possible. Priests, nuns, and laity were already engaged in a massive rescue effort that saved tens of thousands of Jewish lives. The recent memoirs of the current Archbishop of Paris, Jean Cardinal Lustiger, who was one of those sheltered, and of Fr. De Lubac richly supplement Lapomarda’s account of the Jesuit role in all of this.

In Italy, many of the pope’s closest advisors were Jesuits, such as Robert Leiber, his long-time private secretary and a chief mediator in the 1940 conspiracy to overthrow Hitler; Mussolini’s friend Tacchi Venturi; John LaFarge, the American Jesuit who helped prepare the draft for a papal encyclical condemning anti-Semitism; Augustin Bea, the pope’s confessor and later the popular Cardinal Secretary for Jewish-Christian relations; and numerous others. Major rescue networks were centered in Genoa under the leadership of the Jesuit Cardinal Pietro Boetto, who worked closely with the Jewish emigration agency DELASEM, and in Milan under the leadership of a Jesuit priest who served as Cardinal Schuster’s head of the office of religious assistance.

Jesuits hid Jews in the houses and schools of the society throughout occupied Europe, and Lapomarda does a real service in documenting many such efforts, as in the fascinating story of the forty-three Jews concealed by Jesuits in Rome at the Oriental Institute and in the Gregorian University. Altogether, hundreds were hidden in the Vatican and at Castel Gondolfo, the papal summer residence, and thousands in religious houses around Rome. The chief Rabbi of wartime Rome had been sheltered by Jesuits, and he later paid eloquent and generous tribute to Pius XII and his collaborators for their rescue efforts, as did Dr. Raffael Contoni, head of Italy’s wartime Jewish Assistance Committee and later president of the union of Italian Jewish communities.

This is but a sampling of the kind of information and documentation Lapomarda’s study supplies. In his conclusion, he calls for additional studies of other orders and congregations in the church: the Benedictines, Dominicans, Franciscans, Pallotines, Ursulines, and others with similarly proud stories of heroism and resistance yet to be told. Lapomarda’s own work, along with that of the Israeli diplomat Pinchas Lapide, Three Popes and the Jews, and the eminent Jewish historian Jeno Levai, Hungarian Jewry and the Papacy, is a good place to start for a fair and sympathetic account of the Catholic side of the unrelenting and often bitter struggle waged during the war years against both Nazi and Stalinist forms of atheistic secularism.

Lapomarda’s rich notes lead the interested reader to numerous other sources. Such accounts of the previous generation’s struggle to defend and advance authentic religious faith against the scientism, atheism, materialism, hedonism, and despair of the surrounding culture can do much to prepare and strengthen us for our struggles against similar forces in our time.
Edward Krause is Assistant Professor of Social Ethics at Gannon University in Erie, Pennsylvania.

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Re: ካቶሊካውያን ጳጳሳት ኤርትራ ንሃገራዊ ዕርቂ-ሰላም ዝጽውዕ ሃዋርያዊ መልእኽቲ ዘርጊሖም

Post by Meleket » 16 May 2019, 04:35

Pope Encourages Catholics & Jews to Combat Anti-Semitism, & Persecution of Christians
zenit - The World Seen From Rome
Greeting Convention of the International Catholic-Jewish Liaison Committee, Francis Says ‘One Never Errs in Seeking Dialogue’

Pope Francis has encouraged Catholics and Jews to continue working together, especially in efforts to combat Anti-Semitism and persecution of Christians around the world.

The Holy Father did so in his greeting delivered to the participants in the 24th Convention of the “International Catholic Jewish Liaison Committee” (ILC).

“Our strength is the strength of the encounter, leading to certain quarters today, which leads to conflict only,” he stressed in the message, underscoring: “One never errs in seeking dialogue. ”

The Roman Pontiff offered encouragement for a “better understanding” of one another and “to work together in a climate friendly environment.”

Applauding their efforts to promote Jewish-Catholic dialogue, the Holy Father prayed their gathering be “an encounter in peace and for peace.”

“May the blessing of the Most High with you, grant the tenacity of gentleness and the courage of patience. Shalom!” he said.

Here is the Vatican-provided English text of the Pope’s message:


Dear Friends,

I offer you warm welcome and I thank you for everything you do. Your gathering is something like a general assembly of all those professionally engaged in Jewish-Catholic dialogue. I am grateful to the International Jewish Committee for Interreligious Consultations (IJCIC), to the Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews, to make a possible meeting.

From the promulgation of Nostra Aetate until now, Jewish-Catholic dialogue has borne good fruit. We share a rich spiritual patrimony that can and must be more esteemed and appreciated as we grow in mutual understanding, fraternity and shared commitment on behalf of others. In this regard, your Meeting aims to help develop points of convergence and to promote a greater degree of cooperation. It is fitting, too, that you are dealing with the problem of anti-Semitism, and about the persecution of Christians in various parts of the world. To say nothing of the state of Jewish-Catholic dialogue in Italy and in Israel, and its broader prospects.

I offer you encouragement, for a better understanding of one another and to work together in a climate friendly environment. Our strength is the strength of the encounter, leading to certain quarters today, which leads to conflict only. One never errs in seeking dialogue. Scripture points out that “deceit is in the mind of those who plan evil, but those who counsel peace have joy” ( Prov 12:20). I pray that your gathering may be an encounter in peace and for peace. May the blessing of the Most High with you, grant the tenacity of gentleness and the courage of patience. Shalom!

[Original text: English]

MAY 15, 2019 16:48POPE AND HOLY SEE
Last edited by Meleket on 16 May 2019, 08:39, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: ካቶሊካውያን ጳጳሳት ኤርትራ ንሃገራዊ ዕርቂ-ሰላም ዝጽውዕ ሃዋርያዊ መልእኽቲ ዘርጊሖም

Post by Zmeselo » 16 May 2019, 07:05

They've trained many huge monsters for being just, "a humble church of Christ".
Some of the famous people who attended Jesuit schools

(SOURCE: Wikipedia)

Joseph Goebbels (Head of Nazi Propaganda Ministry) -- Trained at a Jesuit College

Joseph Stalin (Communist Dictator) -- Trained by Jesuit monks at Tiflis Seminary

Fidel Castro (Communist Dictator) -- Trained by Jesuits at Colegio Belen

Bill Clinton (Former US President) -- Trained by Jesuits at Georgetown University

George Tenet (Former CIA director) -- Trained by Jesuits at Georgetown University

William Casey (Former CIA director) -- Trained by Jesuits at Fordham University

Juan Carlos I (King of Spain) -- Trained by Jesuits at the Instituto de San Isidro

Timothy Leary (Leading Proponent of LSD) -- Trained by Jesuits at Holy Cross College

Denzel Washington (Famous Actor) -- Trained by Jesuits at Fordham University

Patrick Buchanan (Conservative politician) -- Trained by Jesuits at Gonzaga College High School and Georgetown University

John Kerry (US Senator) -- Trained by Jesuits at Boston College

Robert Gates (Secretary of Defense) -- Trained by Jesuits at Georgetown University

Robert Baer (Former CIA case officer) -- Trained by Jesuits at Georgetown University

King Abdullah II (King of Jordan) -- Trained by Jesuits at Georgetown University

Jose Barroso (President of the European Commission) -- Trained by Jesuits at Georgetown University

Alexander Haig (White House Chief of Staff, Iran-Contra General) -- Trained by Jesuits at St. Joseph's Preparatory School and Georgetown University

John Gannon (Former Head of the Homeland Security Department's Intelligence Unit) -- Trained by Jesuits at Holy Cross College

Vernon Walters (Former Deputy Director of the CIA) - Trained by Jesuits at Stonyhurst College

Prescott Bush (Former Co-Director of Union Banking Corporation, Dubya's grandfather) -- Trained by Jesuits at Stonyhurst College

William J. McDonough (Former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York) -- Trained by Jesuits at Holy Cross College

James E. Burke (Former CEO of Johnson & Johnson) -- Trained by Jesuits at Holy Cross College

Tom Clancy (Writer) -- Trained by Jesuits at Loyola College

Arthur Conan Doyle (Writer) -- Trained by Jesuits at Stonyhurst College

E. Gerald Corrigan (Former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York) -- Trained by Jesuits at Fairfield University and Fordham University

William Daley (Former US Secretary of Commerce) -- Trained by Jesuits at Loyola University

Rene Descrates (Influential French Philosopher) -- Trained by Jesuits at the College Royal Henry-Le-Grand at La Fleche

Michel Foucault (Influential French Philosopher) -- Trained by Jesuits at the College Saint Stanislas

David Hume (Influential Scottish Philosopher) -- Trained by Jesuits College La Fleche

Ruud Lubbers (Former Prime Minister of the Netherlands) -- Trained by Jesuits at Canisius College

Peter Lynch (Wall Street Stock Investor) -- Trained by Jesuits at Boston College

Antonin Scalia (Supreme Court Justice) -- Trained by Jesuits at Xavier High School and Georgetown University

Bill Murray (Famous Actor) -- Trained by Jesuits at Loyola Academy

Alfred Hitchcock (Influential Filmmaker) -- Trained by Jesuits at St Ignatius' College

Paul Getty (Wealthy Philanthropist) -- Trained by Jesuits at Saint Ignatius High and the University of San Fransisco

Vincente Fox (Former President of Mexico) -- Trained by Jesuits at the Universidad Iberoamericana

Joseph E. Schmitz (Former DOD Inspector General, Former Blackwater Executive) -- Trained by Jesuits at the Georgetown Preparatory School and Georgetown University

John G. Schmitz (Conservative Politician) -- Trained by Jesuits at Marquette University High School and Marquette University

Charles de Gaulle (General of Free French Forces during World War II, First President of the French Fifth Republic) -- Trained by Jesuits at College Stanislas

Peter Pace (Former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff) -- Trained by Jesuits at Georgetown University

David Petraeus (Commander of US Central Command, Former Top Commander in Iraq) -- Trained by Jesuits at Georgetown University

James Jones (National Security Adviser, Former Supreme Allied Commander of Europe) -- Trained by Jesuits at Georgetown University

George Casey, Jr. (Chief of Staff for the US Army, Former Top US Commander in Iraq) -- Trained by Jesuits at Boston College High School and Georgetown University

Mike Stenson (President of Jerry Bruckheimer Film) -- Trained by Jesuits at Boston College High School

John V. Murphy (President of OppenheimerFunds, Inc.) -- Trained by Jesuits at Boston College

Michael Sullivan (Director of the ATF) -- Trained by Jesuits at Boston College

John J. Ring (Former President of the American Medical Association) -- Trained by Jesuits at Georgetown University

Mark Dybul (Global AIDS Coordinator) -- Trained by Jesuits at Georgetown University

Andrew von Eschenbach (Former FDA Director) -- Trained by Jesuits at St. Joseph's Preparatory School and Georgetown University

Joseph F. Kilkenny (Commander of Navy Recruiting Command) - Trained by Jesuits at St. Joseph's Preparatory School

Michael Powell (Former Chairman of the FCC, Colin Powell's Son) -- Trained by Jesuits at Georgetown University

David P. Burnham (Former Chairman/CEO of Raytheon) -- Trained by Jesuits at Xavier University

Tim Russert (Former Host of NBC's "Meet The Press") -- Trained by Jesuits at John Carroll University

Francois-Mari Arouet (Influential French Philosopher) -- Trained by Jesuits at the Lycee Louis-le-Grand

Peter O'Toole (Famous Actor) -- Trained by Jesuits at St Anne's Catholic School

Pierre Trudeau (Former Canadian Prime Minister) -- Trained by Jesuits at Jean-de-Brebeuf

Mark Thompson (Director-General of BBC) -- Trained by Jesuits at Stonyhurst College

William Joyce (Wartime Nazi Propaganda Broadcaster) -- Trained by Jesuits at St. Ignatius College

John M. Loh (Former Chief of Staff for the US Air Force) - Trained by Jesuits at Gonzaga College High School

James E. Rohr (Chairman and CEO of The PNC Financial Services Group) -- Trained by Jesuits at St. Ignatius High School

Francis Rooney (Former US Ambassador to the Vatican) -- Trained by the Jesuits at Georgetown University Preparatory School and Georgetown University

Francis X. Coleman (Partner at Goldman Sachs) -- Trained by the Jesuits at Fordham Preparatory School

Mario Gabelli (CEO of FCB Worldwide) -- Trained by the Jesuits at Fordham University

John Keane (Former Vice Chief of Staff for the US Army) -- Trained by Jesuits at Fordham University

Francis Spellman (Former Archbishop of New York) -- Trained by Jesuits at Fordham College

Ray McGovern (Former CIA agent, Former adviser to Henry Kissinger, "Whistleblower") -- Trained by Jesuits at Fordham University and Georgetown University

Edward Bennett Williams (Washington superlawyer whose firm defended many high-profile clients involved in suspicious cases such as Iran-Contra and the Reagan Shooting) -- Trained by Jesuits at Georgetown University and Holy Cross College

Gordon Liddy (Chief Operative for the Watergate "Plumbers") -- Trained by Jesuits at Fordham University

Benjamin Fulford ("Illuminati whistleblower") -- Trained by Jesuits at Sophia University

John F. McManus (President of the John Birch Society) -- Trained by Jesuits at Holy Cross College

Joe McCarthy (Communist Witchhunter) -- Trained by Jesuits at Marquette University

George Noory (Host of Coast to Coast AM) -- Trained by Jesuits at the University of Detroit Mercy

David Addington ([deleted] Cheney's Chief of Staff) -- Trained by Jesuits at Georgetown University

Janet Napolitano (Head of the Homeland Security Department) -- Trained by Jesuits at Santa Clara University

Leon Panetta (Head of the CIA) -- Trained by Jesuits at Santa Clara University

Adam Weishaupt (Founder of the Bavarian Illuminati) -- Trained by Jesuits at Ingolstadt University

Posts: 359
Joined: 16 Feb 2018, 05:08

Re: ካቶሊካውያን ጳጳሳት ኤርትራ ንሃገራዊ ዕርቂ-ሰላም ዝጽውዕ ሃዋርያዊ መልእኽቲ ዘርጊሖም

Post by Meleket » 16 May 2019, 07:57

ይሁዳ’ዉን ተምሃራይ ናይ ‘መን ኢኻ’ ትብሎ ኔሩ!!! :mrgreen:
List of lay Catholic scientists
(SOURCE: Wikipedia)
Many Catholics have made significant contributions to the development of science and mathematics from the Middle Ages to today. These scientists include Galileo Galilei,[1] René Descartes,[2] Louis Pasteur,[3] Blaise Pascal, André-Marie Ampère, Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, Pierre de Fermat, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, Alessandro Volta,[4] Augustin-Louis Cauchy, Pierre Duhem, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, Alois Alzheimer, Georgius Agricola, and Christian Doppler.

For additional Catholic scientists, see the List of Catholic churchmen-scientists.

Catholic scientists[edit]

Galileo Galilei

René Descartes

Blaise Pascal

Louis Pasteur

André-Marie Ampère

Antoine Lavoisier

John Eccles

Christian Doppler
Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1718–1799) – mathematician who wrote on differential and integral calculus
Georgius Agricola (1494–1555) – father of mineralogy[5]
Alois Alzheimer (1864–1915) – credited with identifying the first published case of presenile dementia, which is now known as Alzheimer's disease[6]
André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836) – one of the main discoverers of electromagnetism
Leopold Auenbrugger (1722–1809) – first to use percussion as a diagnostic technique in medicine
Adrien Auzout (1622–1691) – astronomer who contributed to the development of the telescopic micrometer
Amedeo Avogadro (1776–1856) – Italian scientist noted for contributions to molecular theory and Avogadro's Law[7]
Francisco J. Ayala (1934–) – Spanish-American biologist and philosopher at the University of California, Irvine[8][9]
Jacques Babinet (1794–1872) – French physicist, mathematician, and astronomer who is best known for his contributions to optics [10]
Stephen M. Barr (1953–) – professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Delaware and a member of its Bartol Research Institute
Joachim Barrande (1799–1883) – French geologist and paleontologist who studied fossils from the Lower Palaeozoic rocks of Bohemia [11]
Laura Bassi (1711–1778) – physicist at the University of Bologna and Chair in experimental physics at the Bologna Institute of Sciences, the first woman to be offered a professorship at a European university
Antoine César Becquerel (1788–1878) – pioneer in the study of electric and luminescent phenomena
Henri Becquerel (1852–1908) – awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for his co-discovery of radioactivity
Carlo Beenakker (1960–) – professor at Leiden University and leader of the university's mesoscopic physics group, established in 1992.
Giovanni Battista Belzoni (1778–1823) – prolific Italian explorer and pioneer archaeologist of Egyptian antiquities[12]
Pierre-Joseph van Beneden (1809–1894) – Belgian zoologist and paleontologist who established one of the world's first marine laboratories and aquariums[13]
Claude Bernard (1813–1878) – physiologist who helped to apply scientific methodology to medicine
Jacques Philippe Marie Binet (1786–1856) – mathematician known for Binet's formula and his contributions to number theory
Jean-Baptiste Biot (1774–1862) – physicist who established the reality of meteorites and studied polarization of light
John Birmingham (astronomer) (1816–1884) – Irish astronomer who discovered the recurrent nova T Coronae Borealis and revised and extended Schjellerup's Catalogue of Red Stars.[14]
Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville (1777–1850) – zoologist and anatomist who coined the term paleontology and described several new species of reptiles[15]
Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (1608–1679) – often referred to as the father of modern biomechanics
Raoul Bott (1923–2005) – mathematician known for numerous basic contributions to geometry in its broad sense[16][17]
Marcella Boveri (1863–1950) – biologist and first woman to graduate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Theodor Boveri (1862–1915) – first to hypothesize the celluar processes that cause cancer
Louis Braille (1809–1852) – inventor of the Braille reading and writing system
Edouard Branly (1844–1940) – inventor and physicist known for his involvement in wireless telegraphy and his invention of the Branly coherer
James Britten (1846–1924) – botanist, member of the Catholic Truth Society and Knight Commander of the Order of St. Gregory the Great[18]
Hermann Brück (1905–2000) – Astronomer Royal for Scotland from 1957–1975; honored by Pope John Paul II
Albert Brudzewski (c. 1445–c.1497) – first to state that the Moon moves in an ellipse
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707–1788) – one of the pioneers of natural history, especially through his monumental Histoire Naturelle
Nicola Cabibbo (1935–2010) – Italian physicist, discoverer of the universality of weak interactions (Cabibbo angle), President of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences from 1993 until his death
Alexis Carrel (1873–1944) – awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for pioneering vascular suturing techniques
John Casey (mathematician) (1820–1891) – Irish geometer known for Casey's theorem
Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1625–1712) – first to observe four of Saturn's moons and the co-discoverer of the Great Red Spot on Jupiter
Augustin-Louis Cauchy (1789–1857) – mathematician who was an early pioneer in analysis
Andrea Cesalpino (c.1525–1603) – botanist who also theorized on the circulation of blood
Jean-François Champollion (1790–1832) – published the first translation of the Rosetta Stone
Michel Chasles (1793–1880) – mathematician who elaborated on the theory of modern projective geometry and was awarded the Copley Medal
Guy de Chauliac (c.1300–1368) – most eminent surgeon of the Middle Ages
Chien-jen Chen (1951–) – Taiwanese epidemiologist researching hepatitis B, liver cancer risk of people with hepatitis B, link of arsenic to blackfoot disease [zh], etc.[19]
Albert Claude (1899–1983) – awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his contributions to cytology
Mateo Realdo Colombo (1516–1559) – discovered the pulmonary circuit,[20] which paved the way for Harvey's discovery of circulation
Arthur W. Conway (1876–1950) – remembered for his application of biquaternion algebra to the special theory of relativity
E. J. Conway (1894–1968) – Irish biochemist known for works pertaining to electrolyte physiology and analytical chemistry[21]
Carl Ferdinand Cori (1896–1984) – shared the 1947 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with his wife for their discovery of the Cori cycle
Gerty Cori (1896–1957) – biochemist who was the first American woman win a Nobel Prize in science (1947)[22]
Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis (1792–1843) – formulated laws regarding rotating systems, which later became known as the Corialis effect
Domenico Cotugno (1736–1822) – Italian anatomist who discovered the nasopalatine nerve, demonstrated the existence of the labyrinthine fluid, and formulated a theory of resonance and hearing, among other important contributions
Maurice Couette (1858–1943) – best known for his contributions to rheology and the theory of fluid flow; appointed a Knight of the Order of St. Gregory the Great by Pope Pius XI in 1925[23]
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (1736–1806) – physicist known for developing Coulomb's law
Clyde Cowan (1919–1974) – co-discoverer of the neutrino
Jean Cruveilhier (1791–1874) – made important contributions to the study of the nervous system and was the first to describe the lesions associated with multiple sclerosis; originally planned to enter the priesthood
Endre Czeizel (1935–2015) – Discovered that folic acid prevents or reduces the formation of more serious developmental disorders, such as neural tube defects like spina bifida
Gabriel Auguste Daubrée (1814–1896) – pioneer in the application of experimental methods to the study of diverse geologic phenomena[24]
Charles Enrique Dent (1911–1976) – British biochemist who defined new amino-acid diseases such as various forms of Fanconi syndrome, Hartnup disease, argininosuccinic aciduria and [deleted][25]
René Descartes (1596–1650) – father of modern philosophy and analytic geometry
César-Mansuète Despretz (1791–1863) – chemist and physicist who investigated latent heat, the elasticity of vapors, the compressibility of liquids, and the density of gases[26]
Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (1805–1859) – mathematician who contributed to number theory and was one of the first to give the modern formal definition of a function
Peter Dodson (1946- ) – American paleontologist at the University of Pennsylvania; co-editor of The Dinosauria, widely considered the definitive scholarly reference on dinosaurs
Ignacy Domeyko (1802–1889) – Polish scientist who made major contributions to the study of Chile's geography, geology, and mineralogy
Christian Doppler (1803–1853) – Austrian physicist and mathematician who enunciated the Doppler effect
Pierre Duhem (1861–1916) – historian of science who made important contributions to hydrodynamics, elasticity, and thermodynamics
Félix Dujardin (1801–1860) – biologist remembered for his research on protozoans and other invertebrates; became a devout Catholic later in life and was known to read The Imitation of Christ[27]
Jean-Baptiste Dumas (1800–1884) – chemist who established new values for the atomic mass of thirty elements
André Dumont (1809–1857) – Belgian geologist who prepared the first geological map of Belgium and named many of the subdivisions of the Cretaceous and Tertiary[28]
Charles Dupin (1784–1873) – mathematician who discovered the Dupin cyclide and the Dupin indicatrix[29]
John Eccles (1903–1997) – awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work on the synapse[30]
Stephan Endlicher (1804–1849) – botanist who formulated a major system of plant classification
Bartolomeo Eustachi (c.1500–1574) – one of the founders of human anatomy
Jean-Henri Fabre (1823–1915) – naturalist, entomologist, and science writer; "The Homer of Insects"
Hieronymus Fabricius (1537–1619) – father of embryology
Gabriele Falloppio (1523–1562) – pioneering Italian anatomist who studied the human ear and reproductive organs
Mary Celine Fasenmyer (1906–1996) – religious sister and mathematician, founder of Sister Celine's polynomials
Hervé Faye (1814–1902) – astronomer whose discovery of the periodic comet 4P/Faye won him the 1844 Lalande Prize and membership in the French Academy of Sciences
Pierre de Fermat (1601–1665) – number theorist who contributed to the early development of calculus
Enrico Fermi (1901–1954) – awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for his work in induced radioactivity
Jean Fernel (1497–1558) – physician who introduced the term physiology
Fibonacci (c.1170–c.1250) – popularized Hindu-Arabic numerals in Europe and discovered the Fibonacci sequence
Hippolyte Fizeau (1819–1896) – first person to determine experimentally the velocity of light[31]
Lawrence Flick (1856–1938) – American physician who pioneered research and treatment of tuberculosis
Léon Foucault (1819–1868) – invented the Foucault pendulum to measure the effect of the earth's rotation
Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787–1826) – discovered Fraunhofer lines in the sun's spectrum
Augustin-Jean Fresnel (1788–1827) – made significant contributions to the theory of wave optics
Johann Nepomuk von Fuchs (1774–1856) – confirmed the stoichiometric laws and observed isomorphism and the cation exchange of zeolites[32]
Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) – father of modern science[33]
Luigi Galvani (1737–1798) – formulated the theory of animal electricity
Dorothy Annie Elizabeth Garrod (1892–1968) - archaeologist specialised in the Palaeolithic period.
William Gascoigne (1610–1644) – developed the first micrometer
Riccardo Giacconi (1931–) – Nobel Prize-winning astrophysicist who laid the foundations of X-ray astronomy
Paula González (1932–) – religious sister and professor of biology
Peter Grünberg (1939–2018) – German physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics laureate[34]
Johannes Gutenberg (c.1398–1468) – inventor of the printing press
Samuel Stehman Haldeman (1812–1880) – American naturalist and convert to Catholicism who researched fresh-water mollusks, the human voice, Amerindian dialects, and the organs of sound of insects
Jean Baptiste Julien d'Omalius d'Halloy (1783–1875) – one of the pioneers of modern geology[35]
Eduard Heis (1806–1877) – astronomer who contributed the first true delineation of the Milky Way
Jan Baptist van Helmont (1579–1644) – founder of pneumatic chemistry
George de Hevesy (1885–1966) – Hungarian radiochemist and Nobel laureate[36]
Charles Hermite (1822–1901) – mathematician who did research on number theory, quadratic forms, elliptic functions, and algebra
John Philip Holland (1840–1914) – developed the first submarine to be formally commissioned by the US Navy
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1748–1836) – first to propose a natural classification of flowering plants
Mary Kenneth Keller (c.1914–1985) – Sister of Charity and first American woman to earn a PhD in computer science, helped develop BASIC
Annie Chambers Ketchum (1824–1904) – convert to Catholicism and botanist who published Botany for academies and colleges: consisting of plant development and structure from seaweed to clematis
Brian Kobilka (1955–) – American Nobel Prize winning professor who teaches at Stanford University School of Medicine[37][38]
Karl Kreil (1798–1862) – meteorologist and astronomer who conducted important studies of terrestrial magnetism [39]
Stephanie Kwolek (1923–2014) – chemist who developed Kevlar at DuPont in 1965
René Laennec (1781–1826) – physician who invented the stethoscope
Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736–1813) – mathematician and astronomer known for Lagrangian points and Lagrangian mechanics
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829) – French naturalist, biologist and academic whose theories on evolution preceded those of Darwin
Johann von Lamont (1805–1879) – astronomer and physicist who studied the magnetism of the Earth and was the first to calculate the mass of Uranus
Karl Landsteiner (1868–1943) – Nobel Prize winner who identified and classified the human blood types
Pierre André Latreille (1762–1833) – pioneer in entomology
Antoine Lavoisier (1743–1794) – father of modern chemistry[40]
Claude-Nicolas Le Cat (1700–1768) – invented or perfected several instruments for lithotomy and was one of the first adherents of a mechanistic approach to physiology[41]
Jérôme Lejeune (1926–1994) – pediatrician and geneticist, best known for his discovery of the link of diseases to chromosome abnormalities
Jacques Jean Lhermitte (1877–1959) - French neurologist and neuropsychiatrist; clinical director at the Salpêtrière Hospital
Karl August Lossen (1841–1893) – geologist who mapped and described the Harz Mountains[42]
Jonathan Lunine (1959–) – planetary scientist at the forefront of research into planet formation, evolution, and habitability; serves as vice-president of the Society of Catholic Scientists[43]
William James MacNeven (1763–1841) – Irish-American physician and chemist who was an early proponent of atomic theory[44]
Juan Martín Maldacena (1968– ) – Argentine theoretical physicist, first Carl P. Feinberg Professor of Theoretical Physics in the Institute for Advanced Study's School of Natural Sciences, and first proponent of AdS/CFT correspondence[45]
Marcello Malpighi (1628–1694) – father of comparative physiology[46]
Étienne-Louis Malus (1775–1812) – discovered the polarization of light
Anna Morandi Manzolini (1714–1774) – anatomist and anatomical wax artist who lectured at the University of Bologna
Giovanni Manzolini (1700–1755) – anatomical wax artist and Professor of anatomy at the University of Bologna
Guglielmo Marconi (1874–1937) – father of wireless technology and radio transmission
Luigi Ferdinando Marsili (1658–1730) – one of the founders of modern oceanography[47]
Pierre Louis Maupertuis (1698–1759) – known for the Maupertuis principle and for being the first president of the Berlin Academy of Science
Michele Mercati (1541–1593) – one of the first to recognize prehistoric stone tools as man-made
Charles W. Misner (1932–) – American cosmologist dedicated to the study of general relativity
Kenneth R. Miller (1948–) – American cell biologist and molecular biologist who teaches at Brown University[48]
Mario J. Molina (1943–) – Mexican chemist, one of the precursors to the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole (1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry)
Peter Joseph Moloney (1891–1989) – Canadian immunologist and pioneering vaccine researcher, who worked out the first large-scale purification of insulin in 1922; International Gairdner Award, 1967)[49]
Gaspard Monge (1746–1818) – father of descriptive geometry
John J. Montgomery (1858–1911) – American physicist and inventor of gliders and aerodynamics
Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682–1771) – father of modern anatomical pathology[50]
Johannes Peter Müller (1801–1858) – founder of modern physiology[51]
Joseph Murray (1919–2012) – Nobel Prize in Medicine laureate[52]
John von Neumann (1903–1957) – Hungarian-born American mathematician and polymath[53] who converted to Catholicism[54]
Martin Nowak (1965–) – evolutionary theorist and Director of the Program for Evolutionary Dynamics at Harvard University; serves on the board of the Society of Catholic Scientists[43]
Karin Öberg (1982–) – her Öberg Astrochemistry Group discovered the first complex organic molecule in a protoplanetary disk; serves on the board of the Society of Catholic Scientists[43]
Abraham Ortelius (1527–1598) – created the first modern atlas and theorized on continental drift
Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) – French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and philosopher
Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) – father of bacteriology[3][55]
Pierre Joseph Pelletier (1788–1842) – co-discovered strychnine, caffeine, quinine, cinchonine, among many other discoveries in chemistry[56]
Georg von Peuerbach (1423–1461) – called the father of mathematical and observational astronomy in the West[57]
Gabrio Piola (1794–1850) – Italian physicist and mathematician who made fundamental contributions to continuum mechanics
Michael Polanyi (1891–1976) – Hungarian polymath, made contributions to physical chemistry, economics, and philosophy
Vladimir Prelog (1906–1998) – Croatian-Swiss organic chemist, winner of the 1975 Nobel Prize for chemistry
Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852–1934) – awarded the Nobel Prize for his contributions to neuroscience
Giancarlo Rastelli (1933–1970) – Pioneering cardiac surgeon at the Mayo Clinic who developed the Rastelli procedure; he is a Servant of God in the Catholic Church
René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur (1683–1757) – scientific polymath known especially for his study of insects
Francesco Redi (1626–1697) – his experiments with maggots were a major step in overturning the idea of spontaneous generation
Henri Victor Regnault (1810–1878) – chemist with two laws governing the specific heat of gases named after him[58]
Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro (1853–1925) – one of the founders of tensor calculus
Gilles de Roberval (1602–1675) – mathematician who studied the geometry of infinitesimals and was one of the founders of kinematic geometry
Clemens C. J. Roothaan (1918–) – physicist known for developing the Roothaan equations
Frederick Rossini (1899–1990) – Priestley Medal and Laetare Medal-winning chemist[59]
Paolo Ruffini (1765–1822) – Italian mathematician who contributed to the Abel–Ruffini theorem and described Ruffini's rule
Paul Sabatier (chemist) (1854–1941) – awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work improving the hydrogenation of organic species in the presence of metals
Adhémar Jean Claude Barré de Saint-Venant (1797–1886) – remembered for Saint-Venant's principle, Saint-Venant's theorem, and Saint-Venant's compatibility condition; given the title Count by Pope Pius IX in 1869
Theodor Schwann (1810–1882) – founder of the theory of the cellular structure of animal organisms
Ignaz Semmelweis (1818–1865) – early pioneer of antiseptic procedures, discoverer of the cause of puerperal fever
J. Wolfgang Smith (1930-) – mathematician, physicist, and philosopher of science
Horatio Storer (1830-1922) – physician; founder of the Gynaecological Society of Boston, the first medical society devoted exclusively to gynecology; leader of the "physicians' crusade against abortion"
Louis Jacques Thénard (1777–1857) – discovered hydrogen peroxide and contributed to the discovery of boron[60]
Evangelista Torricelli (1608–1647) – inventor of the barometer
Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli (1397–1482) – Italian mathematician, astronomer and cosmographer
Richard Towneley (1629–1707) – mathematician and astronomer whose work contributed to the formulation of Boyle's Law
Louis René Tulasne (1815–1885) – biologist with several genera and species of fungi named after him
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (1763–1829) – discovered the chemical element beryllium
Urbain Le Verrier (1811–1877) – mathematician who predicted the discovery of Neptune
Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) – father of modern human anatomy
François Viète (1540–1603) – father of modern algebra[61]
Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) – Renaissance anatomist, scientist, mathematician, and painter
Vincenzo Viviani (1622–1703) – mathematician known for Viviani's theorem, Viviani's curve and his work in determining the speed of sound
Alessandro Volta (1745–1827) – physicist known for the invention of the battery[4]
Wilhelm Heinrich Waagen (1841–1900) – geologist and paleontologist who provided the first example of evolution described from the geologic record, after studying Jurassic ammonites[62]
James Joseph Walsh (1865–1942) – dean and professor of nervous diseases and of the history of medicine at Fordham University; Laetare Medal recipient
Karl Weierstrass (1815–1897) – often called the father of modern analysis[63]
E. T. Whittaker (1873–1956) – English mathematician who made contributions to applied mathematics and mathematical physics
Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717–1768) – one of the founders of scientific archaeology
Bertram Windle (1858–1929) – anthropologist, physician, and former president of University College Cork
Jacob B. Winslow (1669–1760) – convert to Catholicism who was regarded as the greatest European anatomist of his day [64]
Antonino Zichichi (1929–) – Italian nuclear physicist, former President of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare[65][66]

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