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The Conquest of Abyssinia: Futuh Al Habasa

Re: The Conquest of Abyssinia: Futuh Al Habasa

Postby Khysion » 01 Jan 2018, 14:20

Passerby: I tried looking into that page. However, it's not available on my internet.

Here is what I gained from the Al-Futah Al-Habesh.

"Somali forces contributed most of the Imām’s victories. Shihab ad-Din, the Muslim chronicler of the period, writing between 1540 and 1560, mentions them frequently (Futūḥ al-Ḥabasha, ed. And trs. R. Besset Paris, 1897.). The most prominent Somali groups were respectively Habar Magādle clan, who were Habr Awal, Garhajis, Arap and Ayub all from the Isāq clan, were the first clan to join Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi war and contributed the most. Also, there were other Somali clans who contributed the war, who were the Issa and Gadabursi (Dir), Geri, Marrehān, and Harti – all Dārod clans, as well as several Dir clans also took part of the holy war. The Garen Dynasty from Mogadishu of Ajuuran Empire also sent their Somali mercenaries to support the Adal Sultanate's struggle. "

Here's an interesting historical quote I got from Oxford history of Islam.

"Ethnic Somalis being the majority of the army is further evidenced in the Oxford History of Islam: The Sultanate of Adal, which emerged as the major Muslim principality from 1400 to 1700, seems to have recruited its military force mainly among the Somalis from their kingdom."

Here: ... edir_esc=y

Re: The Conquest of Abyssinia: Futuh Al Habasa

Postby Sadacha Macca » 01 Jan 2018, 15:26

Another interesting thing is oromo warriors fought on both sides.
some were christianized, and fought against the imam and his forces.
and some were muslims, fighting for the imam.

read below:

''The same peoples [referring to Oromos], who made up the backbone of the Muslim army of Ahmed Gran, were capable of wreaking havoc with the Christian Ethiopian state. If they could in one incident expel the Oromo from their homeland and in another overrun the entire christian ethiopia, nobody has bothered to convincgly explain what caused the sudden reversal of the role in which they, too, fell victims to the ''tidal wave'' that they had unleashed. (p. 132)
Abyssinians had in the end effectively defeated ahmed's army, his warriors were put to swords, and what remained was chased away. It is had to imagine the oromo then walked back to occupy their land.

By Tadesse E.A. page 124]

''During the 6 years (1520-1526) when the Portuguese Embassy stayed at the court of King Lebna Dengel, Alvares provides us with the names of two individuals who served at Bahar Negash (the title of the governor of the province of the sea). They were Dori and Bulla. Alvares tells us that when Bahar Negash Dori died he was succeeded by his son, Bulla. There is no doubt that Dori and Bulla are unmistakable Oromo names. What these few examples demonstrate is that during the 16th century some of the prominent individuals, who were from the background of sedentary Oromo communities were integrated into the heart and soul of Christian administration.''

[The Oromo and the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia: 1300-1700
By Mohammed Hassen, page 84]

On how oromos suffered too:

''The fighting between the abyssinian christians and the muslims did not end with grans defeat by the portuguese, and it was for many years a reoccurring feature of the Abyssinian scene. The Oromo peoples of the southern and western highlands watched this struggle with interest. They had suffered in their time from both parties, and were waiting in the wings for opportunities... to recover lands, which had been taken from them.''

[Tesema Ta'a: The Political Economy of an African Society in Transformation: The Case of Macca Oromo (Ethiopia), page 23]

Re: The Conquest of Abyssinia: Futuh Al Habasa

Postby Khysion » 01 Jan 2018, 18:22

Sadacha Macca: Abyssinians Empire never defeated Imam Ahmed, the Portuguese simply got involved and kicked out the forces from the Abyssinians mountains.

Here's one famous quote and shows the cowardliness of the Abyssinians.

"In 1529, the Somali Adalite forces led by Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi invaded and conquered the Ethiopian Empire in what is known as the Abyssinian–Adal war. The Adal occupation lasted fourteen years. During the conflict, the Adal Sultanate employed cannons provided by the Ottoman Empire. In the aftermath of the war, Adal annexed Ethiopia, uniting it with territories in what is now Somalia. In 1543, with the help of the Portuguese Empire, the Solomonic dynasty was restored."

Not to mention those Portuguese with their commander called Cristóvão da Gama had 1 thousand Portuguese men and 400 Musketeers and he got ambushed and slaughtered by a Somali Adalite general called Ahmad Girri bin Husain who was stated to hail from the Habar Magaadle clan of Isaaq (Somali).

The Oromos contributing the holy war isn't mentioned that much but maybe the Islamized ones joined because apparently, Imam Ahmed converted them after clashing them.

"Ethiopian historians such as Azazh T'ino and Bahrey have written that during the period of his rise to power, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi had converted many Oromo pastoral people to Islam."

Oromos are quite confusing indeed because after Adal Sultanate was weakened, the Oromo than conducted an expansion against them and they also done it against the Abyssinian Empire too after they were weakened.

"After the conflict between the Adal Sultanate and Abyssinian kingdom had subsided, the conquest of the highland regions of Abyssinia and Adal by the Oromo (namely, through military expansion and the installation of the Gadaa socio-political system) ended in the contraction of both powers and changed regional dynamics for centuries to come. In essence, what had happened is that the populations of the highlands had not ceased to exist as a result of the Gadaa expansion, but were simply incorporated into a different socio-political system."

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