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Historical Rivarily between the Abbysinians and Somalis.

Postby Khysion » 21 Dec 2017, 20:42

I'm quoting historical facts from the authentic sources of Al-Fatah Al-Habesh and Medieval Ethiopia. It's pretty interesting history between the rivalling Abbysinians and Somali's during the medieval times who in it's time represented two major religions.

"Islam was introduced to the northern Somali coast early on from the Arabian peninsula, shortly after the hijra which was the times were the Prophet was alive. Zeila's two-mihrab Masjid al-Qiblatayn dates to the 7th century and is the oldest mosque in Africa. In the late 9th century, Al-Yaqubi wrote that Muslims were living along the northern Somali seaboard. He also mentioned that the Walashma Dynasty had its capital in the city, suggesting that the Walashma Dynasty with Zeila as its headquarters dates back to at least the 9th or 10th century. According to I.M. Lewis, the polity was governed by Somali local dynasties, who also ruled over the similarly-established Sultanate of Mogadishu in the littoral Benadir region to the south. Adal's history from this founding period forth would be characterized by a succession of battles with neighbouring Abyssinia.

The conquest of Shewa ignited a rivalry for supremacy between the Christian Solomonids and the Muslim Ifatites, which resulted in several devastating wars and ultimately ended in a Solomonic victory over the Kingdom of Ifat. Parts of northwestern Somalia came under the rule of the Solomonids in medieval times, especially during the reign of Amda Seyon I (r. 1314-1344). In 1403 or 1415 (under Emperor Dawit I or Emperor Yeshaq I, respectively), measures were taken against the Muslim Sultanate of Adal. The Emperor eventually captured King Sa'ad ad-Din II of the Walashma dynasty in Zeila and had him executed. The Walashma Chronicle, however, records the date as 1415, which would make the Ethiopian victor Emperor Yeshaq I. After the war, the reigning king had his minstrels compose a song praising his victory, which states that "Nobody in this world can fight good as the Somalis". Sa'ad ad-Din II's family was subsequently given safe haven at the court of the King of Yemen, where his sons regrouped and planned their revenge on the Solomonids.

The oldest son Sabr ad-Din II built a new capital eastwards of Zeila known as Dakkar and began referring to himself as the King of Adal. He continued the war against the Solomonic Empire. Despite his army's smaller size, he was able to defeat the Solomonids at the battles of Serjan and Zikr Amhara and consequently pillaged the surrounding areas. Many similar battles were fought between the Adalites and the Solomonids with both sides achieving victory and suffering defeat but ultimately Sultan Sabr ad-Din II successfully managed to drive the Solomonic army out of Adal territory. He died a natural death and was succeeded by his brother Mansur ad-Din who invaded the capital and royal seat of the Solomonic Empire and drove Emperor Dawit II to Yedaya where according to al-Maqrizi, Sultan Mansur destroyed a Solomonic army and killed the Emperor. He then advanced to the mountains of Mokha, where he encountered a 30,000 strong Solomonic army. The Adalite soldiers surrounded their enemies and for two months besieged the trapped Solomonic soldiers until a truce was declared in Mansur's favour.

Later on in the campaign, the Adalites were struck by a catastrophe when Sultan Mansur and his brother Muhammad were captured in battle by the Solomonids. Mansur was immediately succeeded by the youngest brother of the family Jamal ad-Din II. Sultan Jamal reorganized the army into a formidable force and defeated the Solomonic armies at Bale, Yedeya and Jazja. Emperor Yeshaq I responded by gathering a large army and invaded the cities of Yedeya and Jazja but was repulsed by the soldiers of Jamal. Following this success, Jamal organized another successful attack against the Solomonic forces and inflicted heavy casualties in what was reportedly the largest Adalite army ever fielded. As a result, Yeshaq was forced to withdraw towards the Blue Nile over the next five months, while Jamal ad Din's forces pursued them and looted much gold on the way, although no engagement ensued.

After returning home, Jamal sent his brother Ahmad with the Christian battle-expert Harb Jaush to successfully attack the province of Dawaro. Despite his losses, Emperor Yeshaq was still able to continue field armies against Jamal. Sultan Jamal continued to advance further into the Abyssinian heartland. However, Jamal on hearing of Yeshaq's plan to send several large armies to attack three different areas of Adal (including the capital), returned to Adal, where he fought the Solomonic forces at Harjai and, according to al-Maqrizi, this is where the Emperor Yeshaq died in battle. The young Sultan Jamal ad-Din II at the end of his reign had outperformed his brothers and forefathers in the war arena and became the most successful ruler of Adal to date. Within a few years, however, Jamal was assassinated by either disloyal friends or cousins around 1432 or 1433 and was succeeded by his brother Badlay ibn Sa'ad ad-Din who one of the most powerful Somali rulers in Adal kingdom. Sultan Badlay in Somali meaning - "The Beast" continued the campaigns of his younger brother and began several successful expeditions against the Christian empire. He captured the Bale mountains and recovered the Kingdom of Bale, and also captured Dawaro province and turned it into a vassal state of Adal kingdom. Sultan Badlay began preparations of a major Adalite offensive into the Ethiopian Highlands and successfully freed all the Muslim kingdoms that were occupied by the Abbysinian kingdom and he was able to kill the Emperor of Abbysinia: Yeshaq I in the battle. He was also successfully collected funding from surrounding Muslim kingdoms, even as far away as the Mogadishu the capital of the powerful kingdom called Ajuuran Empire.

However, these ambitious plans were thrown out the war chamber when King Badlay died during the invasion of Lake Tana. He was succeeded by his son Muhammad ibn Badlay, who sent envoys to their Somali brethren from the South: The powerful Sultan of Mamluk Ajuuran Empire to gather support and arms in the continuing war against the Christian empire. However, Ajuuran Empire denied helping their northern Somali kin as they were busy with Portuguese Empire with disputed dominance over the Indian Ocean trade. The Somali Adalite ruler Muhammad and the Abbysinian Solomonic ruler Baeda Maryam agreed to a truce and both states in the following decades saw an unprecedented period of peace and stability.

Sultan Muhammad was succeeded by his son Shams ad Din, while Emperor Baeda Maryam was succeeded by his son Eskender. During this time, period warfare broke out again between the two states and Emperor Eskender invaded Dakkar, where he was stopped by a large Adalite army, which destroyed the Solomonic army to such an extent that no further expeditions were carried out for the remainder of Eskender's reign. Adal, however, continued to raid the Christian empire unabated under General Mahfuz, the leader of the Adalite war machine, who annually invaded the Christian territories. Eskender was succeeded by Emperor Na'od, who tried to defend the Christians from General Mahfuz but he too was also killed in battle by the Adalite army in Ifat province.

At the turn of the 16th century, Adal regrouped and, around 1527, under the charismatic leadership of Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Gurey in Somali, Gragn in Amharic, both meaning "left-handed") was a Somali Imam and General of the Adal Sultanate who rebelled against Abyssinia and defeated several Abyssinian emperors. With the help of an army mainly composed of Somalis was able to invade the Abyssinian kingdom with Ottoman arms and support, marched into Ethiopia and caused considerable damage on the highland state. Many historic churches, manuscripts and settlements were looted and burned during the campaigns. Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi successfully conquered the entire Abbysinian Empire. In 1529, the Somali Adal Sultanate's forces led by Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi invaded the Ethiopian Empire in what is known as the Abyssinian–Adal war. The Adal occupation lasted fourteen years. During the conflict, the Adal Sultanate employed cannons provided by the Ottoman Empire. In the aftermath of the war, Adal annexed Ethiopia, uniting it with territories in what is now Somalia. In 1543, with the help of the Portuguese Empire, the Solomonic dynasty was restored.

After the death of the legendary commander Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi. A powerful leader succeeded him called Nur ibn Mujahid who hailed from the Marehan tribe which is a noble Somali clan. He was known for marrying the widow of Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi and also known succeeding Imam Ahmad as leader of the Muslim forces fighting Christian Ethiopia.

After the Portuguese were able to restore Abbysinian Empire from the legendary Imam Ahmed. Iman Nur, the dead leader’s sister’s son, married Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi's firebrand widow, Bati del Wambara, and undertook to renew the fortunes of the Muslim city, which had been sacked in 1550. Promoted to Emir around 1550-51, he spent the next two years reorganizing his forces and constructing the defensive wall which still surrounds the city which were built by Somali engineers.

In 1554-55, Nur departed on a Jihad, or Holy War, in the eastern Ethiopian lowlands of Bale, and Hadiya. In 1559, he invaded Fatagar, where he fought against the Ethiopian emperor Galawdewos, and killed him in battle and the Abbysinian forces were destroyed and they ran back to their mountains fearing another massive Somali invasion could happen. Nur continued fighting for 12 years until, according to legend, at Gibe he said: "Kaffa!" meaning "enough" in Somali and Iman Nur returned to Adal homeland. Some believe the province is called Kaffa for this reason.

After Imam Nur was planning to gather all the northern Somali forces from Adal kingdom to plan another invasion and finish off Iman Ahmed's conquest and to also avenge him by conquering the Ethiopian highlands came with the surprise by the Oromos migrants who recently conquered many territories across the modern day of Ethiopia. Imam Nur knew that Oromos are currently a bigger threat than the Abbysinians who were hiding within their mountains. Iman Nur successfully conquered eastern Oromia and was able to spread Islam and thought this would end the Oromo expansion against the northern Somalis, he left Adal homeland and went to Hajj. During Nur’s absence, Adal kingdom witnessed internal power struggles, and the unlucky holy city called Harar was disturbed by encroaching Oromo clans. It was at this time that the walls of Harar were built; tradition attributes them to Nur ibn Mujahid with the help of two Somali chiefs, Ahu Abadir and Ahu 'Ali. By 1567, repeated Oromo raids had brought famine to the city. Nur left the city for three months on a punitive raid against the invaders. On his return he found an epidemic afflicting Harar, and he himself died of typhus that year. During his death and the weakening of Adal Sultanate, most of Hararghe were conquered by Oromo's and the local Dir Somali population were absorbed into Afran Qallo the recent Islamized Oromo's by Imam Nur. The northern Somali's were able to resist and not allow them to settle in their coast and were able to hold them off near Babille, Dire Dawa and around Fiq area. Other ethnic groups with their respected kingdoms across modern-day Ethiopia were conquered and assimilated into the Oromo confederation. Although the Christian highlanders of Abbysinian kingdom suffered way worse than the northern Somalis of Adal Sultanate. With the declining of the weakened Adal kingdom and Abbysinian kingdom heavily suffering from the encroaching Oromo clans ended the rivalry between the two dominant religious ethnic tribes that have been battling over dominance in the Horn of Africa for many centuries."
Last edited by Khysion on 22 Dec 2017, 11:22, edited 1 time in total.

Re: Historical Rivarily between the Abbysinians and Somalis.

Postby Degnet » 22 Dec 2017, 04:30

The Ethiopans have lived in that area for a long time,you will take back that land only if Turkey gave back Constantinople to the Christians too.

Re: Historical Rivarily between the Abbysinians and Somalis.

Postby Khysion » 22 Dec 2017, 11:34

Degnet: So Somalis will get back Harar including the Hararghe highlands until our Turkish brothers give Constantinople back to the pagan white's? Over my dead body! :lol:

What's Constantinople? It's called Istanbul now which serves as the business city in Turkey and is the trade route that connects between Europe and Asia. It historically served as the capital of the Ottoman Empire and our Turkish brother were very helpful with the Somali struggles during the medieval times. They are our biggest Muslim ally and we'll not snake them. Study Ottoman Empire huge alliances with the Somali kingdoms like Ajuuran Empire and Adal Empire in the medieval times.

Do you realize why the rivalry between the Abbysinians and Somalis ended? Because of the Galla expansion. :lol: :lol: :lol:

When Greater Somalia is established, best believe they will conquer all their stolen lands and crush any enemy that stands in front of them. You think Abbysinians will help Gallas that also stole their lands? Don't be delusional and quit that Ethiopian bullshit.

After the Adal Sultanate was weakened due to it' war with Abbysinian Empire and Portuguese Empire, the Gallas than took advantage over the crippling northern Somali kingdom. Read from this authentic source called Medieval Ethiopia from below.


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